Friday, August 5, 2011

44 English Phonemes Chart

Phonics and Phonemic Awareness: 44 English Phonemes Chart

The 44 English phonemes are the smallest basic sounds needed to articulate English correctly. The ability to manipulate, distinguish, decode, and make meaning from letters and words is the foundation of beginning literacy. The miracle comes when the alphabet, phonics, phonemic awareness, and grapheme's are synthesized into the ability to read. Give yourself a quick test: List all the English vowel phonemes and examples include all alternate grapheme(s). List all the English consonant phonemes, with examples include all alternate grapheme(s) How many grapheme(s) are in the English language? 

Things to think about!
"In English the sound /f/ can be represented by 'F', 'f', 'ff', 'FF', 'ph', 'PH', 'Ph', 'gh', 'GH', and in some place names of Welsh origin by 'Ff'; while the grapheme 'f' can also represent the phoneme /v/(as in the word of)."

Vowel Phonemes:
           
PHONEME
EXAMPLES
       
           
a
cat
       
e
peg
bread
     
i
pig
wanted
o
log
want
     
u
plug
love
     
ae
pain
day
gate
station
 
ee
sweet
heat
thief
these
 
ie
tried
light
my
shine
mind
oe
road
blow
bone
cold
 
ue
moon
blue
grew
tune
 
oo
look
would
put
   
ar
cart
fast (regional)
     
ur
burn
first
term
heard
work
or
torn
door
warn (regional)
   
au
haul
law
call
   
er
wooden
circus
sister
   
ow
down
shout
     
oi
coin
boy
     
air
stairs
bear
hare
   
ear
fear
beer
here
   
           
Consonant Phonemes:
PHONEME
EXAMPLES
           
b
baby
       
d
dog
       
f
field
photo
     
g
game
       
h
hat
       
j
judge
giant
barge
   
k
cook
quick
mix
Chris
 
l
lamb
       
m
monkey
comb
     
n
nut
knife
gnat
   
p
paper
       
r
rabbit
wrong
     
s
sun
mouse
city
science
 
t
tap
       
v
van
       
w
was
       
wh
where (regional)
       
y
yes
       
z
zebra
please
is
   
th
then
       
th
thin
       
ch
chip
watch
     
sh
ship
mission
chef
   
zh
treasure
       
ng
ring
sink
     

Chart is from:  http://www.lancsngfl.ac.uk/curriculum/literacy/lit_site/lit_sites/phonemes_001/

Phonemic awareness

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Phonemic awareness is a subset of phonological awareness in which listeners are able to hear, identify and manipulate phonemes, the smallest units of sound that can differentiate meaning. Separating the spoken word "cat" into three distinct phonemes, /k/, /æ/, and /t/, requires phonemic awareness.
The National Reading Panel has found that phonemic awareness improves children's word reading and reading comprehension, as well as helping children learn to spell. Phonemic awareness is the basis for learning phonics. This relationship is explained in the What Works Reports and illustrated in the Reading Skills Pyramid.
Phonemic awareness and phonological awareness are often confused since they are interdependent. Phonemic awareness is the ability to hear and manipulate individual phonemes. Phonological awareness includes this ability, but it also includes the ability to hear and manipulate larger units of sound, such as onsets and rimes and syllables.
Studies by Vickie Snider from The Journal of Education have shown that phonemic awareness has a direct correlation with students’ ability to read as they get older. Phonemic awareness builds a foundation for students to understand the rules of the English language. This in turn allows each student to apply these skills and increase his or her oral reading fluency and understanding of the text.
Phonemic awareness relates to the ability to distinguish and manipulate individual sounds, such as /f/, /ʊ/, and /t/ in the case of foot. The following are common phonemic awareness skills practiced with students:
  • Phoneme isolation: which requires recognizing the individual sounds in words, for example, "Tell me the first sound you hear in the word paste" (/p/).
  • Phoneme identity: which requires recognizing the common sound in different words, for example, "Tell me the sound that is the same in bike, boy and bell" (/b/).
  • Phoneme substitution: in which one can turn a word (such as "cat") into another (such as "hat") by substituting one phoneme (such as /h/) for another (/k/). Phoneme substitution can take place for initial sounds (cat-hat), middle sounds (cat-cut) or ending sounds (cat-can).
  • Oral segmenting: The teacher says a word, for example, "ball," and students say the individual sounds, /b/, /ɑ/, and /l/.
  • Oral blending: The teacher says each sound, for example, "/b/, /ɑ/, /l/" and students respond with the word, "ball."
  • Sound deletion: The teacher says word, for example, "bill," has students repeat it, and then instructs students to repeat the word without a sound.
  • Onset-rime manipulation: which requires isolation, identification, segmentation, blending, or deletion of onsets (the single consonant or blend that precedes the vowel and following consonants), for example, j-ump, st-op, str-ong.
For example, the teacher might say, now say bill without the /b/." Students should respond with /ɪl/. There are other phonemic awareness activities, such as sound substitution, where students are instructed to replace one sound with another, sound addition, where students add sounds to words, and sound switching, where students manipulate the order of the phonemes. These are more complex but research supports the use of the three listed above, particularly oral segmenting and oral blending.




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