Tuesday, November 21, 2017

Close Reading Strategies | Close Reading Strategies on Test

Close reading is a rigorous literary investigation, text interrogation, and or a critical analysis of a complex passage or demanding literary work, with the stated goal of gleaning the true meaning of an authors words. Students need repeated concrete practice in the art of owning a text, they must filter and rank text, hunting for salient points, obscure points, and hidden ideas. Students need to be trained to see the patterns (structure, style, conventions) used by writers, the clues they leave behind that are common to the writer's craft. Close reading strategies must be practiced and honed in order for students to develop better critical and analytical thinking. Close reading is not an innate skill, it must be rehearsed, practiced, and mastered. The goal of close reading is a cogent comprehension, a clear understanding of the author's explicit and implicit meanings. 

Common Core State Standards require close reading activities and lessons. 

Close reading anticipatory set: Systematic Skimming or Pre-reading is an analytical "investigational reading strategy" reading activity that should be used at the beginning of a close reading lesson. The strategy effectively engages students' attention, builds background knowledge, and helps students develop essential questions that will deepen their understanding and comprehension. When students learn, use, and develop concrete reading strategies that help them fin the pertinent information "main idea" and not on extraneous detail (intentional distractors are used in many reading assessments) they start comprehending what the author truly intended. 
Essential Question: How do we help students develop close reading strategies that give them the tools to understand an author's message and ideas at the deepest levels?
Close Reading should always start with questions in mind.

My Favorite Close Reading Strategies: I Teach my Students to use these Strategies for End of Year Reading Assessments.


1) Read the title of the passage and any prompts or questions


2) Read the introductory paragraph and the last paragraph “conclusion”

3) Systematic analysis: Look for similar ideas or themes in the first and last paragraphs (authours usually introduce the main idea in the introductory paragraphs or they will summarize the main idea in the conclusion) – look for important terms, key ideas, read a few interior passages if you are not seeing the big ideas introduces in the first or last paragraph


4) Create a hypothesis, theses, or an essential question based on the pre-reading: What is the main idea, theme or message the authors are writing about, deliberately looking for signs of the main ideas or arguments! Inspectional reading, looking especially for a summary sentences or conclusions at the begging and end of the passages.

5) Read the entire text top to bottom reevaluate your hypothesis, theses, and or you essential question

6) Read the text again with your questions in mind: Annotate the text that supports you theses, take notes in the margins, highlight keywords, and ask questions that you would ask the author, summarize ideas, and or classify what type of writing you are analyzing

7) Create a dialectic argument “summarize” using text evidence that supports your original hypothesis, theses, or essential questions

Extensions:

8) Socratic Ranking Survey: Rank the paragraphs or sentences based importance "rank" using an analysis of “Philosophical. Historical, Scientific, or Academic Ideas”. Look for important philosophical topics in preparation for a Socratic seminar



[PDF]A Close Look at Close Reading (PDF)
Close reading is thoughtful, critical analysis of a text that focuses on significant details or patterns in order to develop a deep, precise understanding of the text's form, craft, meanings, etc. It is a key requirement of the Common Core State Standards and directs the reader's attention to the text itself.

[PDF]Close Reading, Vocabulary, and Text Dependent Questions
Strategies for Close Reading. • Story Mapping. • SOAPS. • Text Connections. • Three Levels of Questions. • Arguments & Evidence. • Appeals-Logical, Ethical, Emotional. • Assumptions ...

[PDF]CLOSE AND CRITICAL READING
Students will quickly discover that the author makes multiple claims throughout the argument. When studying poetry, students could underline the imagery they find throughout the poem. Circling specific items is also an effective close reading strategy. Have students circle “Key terms” in the text. Key terms: 1. Are defined. 2.

[PDF]Steps for Close Reading
1. Number the paragraphs. 2. Chunk the text. 3. Read with a pencil. 4. Summarize in the left margin. 5. Dig deeper, draw pictures, and ask questions in the right margin. Steps for Close Reading. 1, 2, 3…

[PDF]Five close reading strategies
Five close reading strategies. (Adapted from an original blog post by Court Allam). I walked in to my first college class, Political Science 101, eager to learn. For my inaugural college assignment, my professor asked the class to read the first three chapters of the textbook for the next class period. That night, I returned to my ...

[PDF]SUppORTING STUDENTS IN CLOSE READING - Center on ...
plan lessons that include increased instructional time working with text and engaging students in close reading of content-area texts. ..... key words, types of sentence structures, visual components, and text cohesion strategies.7. Note the reasons ...... http://ell.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/ela_pdf/ELA%20Lesson%202.pdf.

[PDF]A Close Reading Strategy
A Close Reading Strategy. 1 . Introduction. Provide some context (background) for the text. The instructor reads the text aloud. The students read the text independently. 2. Number the paragraphs. Number each paragraph in the left hand margin. This will help locate information. 3. Chunk: 1—31415-617-8. Chunking breaks ...

[PDF]Close Reading.pdf
Close reading is a writing strategy meant to help you gain a better understanding of your reading of a text and to provide you will the necessary textual evidence to support that reading.

[PDF]Close Reading versus Reading Comprehension Strategies
 CLOSE READING. READING COMPREHENSION STRATEGIES. WHAT IS IT? An outcome; “what the kids do.” Results in deeper analysis and interpretation. A set of techniques for figuring out text.

[PDF]Close Reading Strategy - The Syracuse City School District
Close Reading Strategy Tool Kit. Basic statements or questions of a close read includes: ∙ Let's look closer at this section of the text. / Let's investigate this part further. /. ∙ According to the text, ___/ Let's use evidence from the text to .. /. ∙ Let's see how the author… / Because we want learn how to write like the author __.About 7,250,000 results (0.47 seconds)

[PDF]A Close Look at Close Reading (PDF)
What Is Close Reading? Close reading is thoughtful, critical analysis of a text that focuses on significant details or patterns in order to develop a deep, precise ...


[PDF]Teaching Through Close Reading: Historical and ... - America in Class
meet state testing issues? ➢ I would like to learn more about techniques for active reading. ➢ What are strategies to effectively break up long readings to ...

[PDF]SUppORTING STUDENTS IN CLOSE READING - Center on ...
National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing ... The emphasis on close reading in the ELA & Literacy CCSS means that ..... words, types of sentence structures, visual components, and text cohesion strategies.7.

[PDF]The Effects of Comprehension Through Close Reading - Fisher Digital ...
comprehension of a text through a close read and a general reading strategy. The findings showed ..... of reading strategies to increase comprehension. I will be ...

Tuesday, October 31, 2017

Smarter Balanced Practice Test Questions

Smarter Balanced (SBAC) Practice Reading and Math Sample Test Questions with Answers Key 2017-2018 | Grade 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 printable test


Smarter Balanced Practice Math Tests & Sample Questions for Grades 3-11
Mathematics sample questions
Grade 3
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Smarter Balanced Practice Reading Tests & Sample Questions for Grades 3-11
English Language Arts sample questions
Grade 3
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More testing resources

Smarter Balanced practice test

Saturday, October 28, 2017

Characterization in literature: Lessons

Understanding characterization is an important element of literary analysis. Students need to develop different types of characters and use characterization concepts in their own writing before they will truly understand characterization. Examining the themes and points of view in others writing usually starts with characterization. Teaching the types and uses of characterization and analysis of literature are critical for reading comprehension. 

Characterization in literature: Characterization is anything the author uses to develop and shape a character's personality i.e thoughts, actions, reactions, dialogue and their physical appearance. The author usually starts by creating a detailed image of the characters for the audience. There are two main types of literary characterization, direct characterization, and indirect characterization.

Direct or explicit characterization: The author literally tells the audience what a character is like. This may be done via the narrator, another character or by the character themselves. Indirect or implicit characterization audience must infer for themselves what the character is like through the character's thoughts, actions, speech (choice of words, way of talking), physical appearance, mannerisms and interaction with other characters, including other characters' reactions to that particular person.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.4.2 Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text. Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character's thoughts, words, or actions).

[PDF]Developing Character through Literature: A Teacher's Resource Book
Character. Through Literature. A 'Teacher's Resource Book. ERIC and the Family ... Vera Frye found and wrote copy for the sections on heroes and lesson ideas.

[PDF]Defining Characterization - ReadWriteThink
Characterization is the process by which the writer reveals the personality of a ... Characterization is revealed through direct characterization and indirect ...

[PDF]Character Analysis
literary work more realistic by helping the reader connect to the characters ... potentially effective approach suggested by educator Matt Amaral in his article “Lesson Plan: ... /writcent/documents/essay_kinds_docs/character_analysis_essay.pdf.

[PDF]Literature Lesson/Learning Plan: Character Development
EXAMPLE OF A LITERATURE LESSON PLAN: Character Development. FOCUS Question: How does the writer help you understand a character? Reading ...

[PDF]Lesson Plan Literature Interpretation.pages - CoSpaces
Literature classes tend to be less visually engaging, but with CoSpaces, students can ... portray the relations between the characters and create their own figure ...

[PDF]Lessons From Literature Classroom Manual
Lessons from Literature lesson plans using other literature texts you are already teaching. Lessons .... the choices made by characters in literature, it's important ...

[PDF]Picture Books in the Classroom - Penguin Books
COMMON CORE–BASED LESSON IDEAS FOR GRADES K–3. INSPIRE · ENGAGE ... attention to words and illustrations and to learn to identify characters, setting, and plot. The books in ..... responding-literature-30.html. A jaunty ..... www.us.penguingroup.com/static/images/yr/pdf/tl-guide-soyouwanttobepres.pdf. AUTHOR ...

[PDF]The Post-Mortem of a Protagonist - Grant County Schools
www.grant.kyschools.us/Downloads/Characterization.pdfIn this lesson, students will create a visual representation of a character in a ... and/or intellect and link textual evidence of those ideas to the character's head; ... be adapted to several different grade levels with any major literary character or.

[PDF]Character Analysis (PDF)
Character Consideration C.00 -SS3.

[PDF]Character Analysis
To analyze a character, you must find out what makes the character “tick. ... potentially effective approach suggested by educator Matt Amaral in his article “Lesson Plan: ... /writcent/documents/essay_kinds_docs/character_analysis_essay.pdf.

[PDF]Character Traits Mini Lesson Lesson plan - Deyo Group
Character Traits Mini-Lesson #1. WHOLE GROUP. Materials: Character Traits/Emotions/Motives Reproducible. Characters are the people or animals in a story

[PDF]Lesson 1: Values, Beliefs and Character
Estimated Lesson Length: Approximately 1, 50 minute class periods ... Related LifeKnowledge HS 9: Understanding Values, Beliefs, Character and Integrity.

Sunday, October 22, 2017

Cultivate Empathy In Kids

Empathy is a critical soft skill (executive function), it is the ability to understand or feel
what another person is feeling. Experiencing emotional empathy is the skill of seeing and feeling another person's emotional states or perspectives.

Children’s service projects and volunteering benefit children's social-emotional intelligence! Through volunteering youth learn to 
  1. cultivate empathy
  2. respect others
  3. be helpful and kind
  4. understand people who are different from themselves
  5. develop leadership skills
  6. become more patient
  7. gain a better understanding of good citizenship

Cultivating Empathy In Kids Articles & Resources

[PDF]How Parents Can Cultivate Empathy in Children - Making Caring ...
How can parents' ? The following are five ... empathize with our children they develop trusting, secure attachments with us. Those attachments.

[PDF]an empathy toolkit - Be Fearless Be Kind - Hasbro
educators, parents and students working to make empathy as essential as reading ... in their curricula and culture by distinctively cultivating empathy, leadership, ...

[PDF]Helping Your Child Become a Responsible Citizen (PDF)
As parents, we all want our children to grow up to be responsible citizens and ...... others, and it allows us to empathize with them or to feel their suffering.

[PDF]A Discussion Guide for Raising Empathetic Kids and Building Caring ...
And once students grow up, a lack of empathy hampers their ability to collaborate, innovate, and problem-solve—all must-have skills for the global economy.

[PDF]Empathy - KidsHealth in the Classroom
To develop empathy, students can be encouraged to become aware of others' .... KidsHealth.org/classroom/3to5/personal/growing/empathy_handout1.pdf.

[PDF]Raising Caring, Respectful, Ethical Children - Greater Good Science ...
Research in human development clearly shows that the seeds of empathy, caring, and ... We should work to cultivate children's concern for others because it's ...

[PDF]Developing Empathy in Children and Youth - Education Northwest
This is something that education ought to cultivate and that citizens ..... students, the tutors must develop an empathic understanding of the tutees, show a certain ...

[PDF]A Toolkit for Promoting Empathy in Schools - Start Empathy
take to create a classroom where kids' social and emotional needs are met and how to cultivate the kinds of skills that are critical for success in today's (and.

Community Service Resources for Kids


Volunteering at an early age can create positive life behaviors. Children who volunteer are three times more likely to volunteer as adults. Steady volunteering, even at a minimum of one hour a week, reduces negative behaviors. For example, youth who volunteer are 50% less like likely to abuse drugs, alcohol, cigarettes, or engage in destructive behavior. It’s never too early to start to volunteer! Children have many opportunities to help their communities.
The projects below are all age appropriate under the supervision of an adult.

Pre-K to Second Grades

Make cards for nursing home residents

Contact a local hospital or nursing home to see if they would welcome having children make cards for residents. These cards can be holiday specific or just a lovely way to say hello and let that person know that s/he is being thought of.

Adopt an elderly neighbor or nursing home

They can bring cards, or small treats like handmade ornaments or cookies. It would also be a treat to have the children visit and sing or do other performances for nursing home residents.

Have a book drive

Ask children to bring books from home that they are no longer reading, or would like to give to a child in need. These books can be brought to local hospitals or shelters.

Help bake and decorate cookies

Cookies can be sold as a fundraiser or donated to an organization of the children’s choosing. This is a great opportunity to teach children about those in need in their community.

Color lunch bags

Bags can be used to package snacks, treats, or lunches that can be collected for needy children. Inquire at high schools or community service centers to see if they have a program in place that would be able to benefit from the donated bags.

Third – Fifth Grades

Make fleece blankets for children in the hospital

Blankets are easy to make and involve no sewing. The blankets can be donated to a children’s wing of a hospital or a daycare center. (http://hubpages.com/hub/How-to-Make-a-Blanket)

Collect and sort school supplies to benefit a local shelter or library

Keep a box in your classroom for the designated items; then create school kits that can be donated to needy students. Get the word out to parents, faculty, administrators and the community at large about the collection.

Rake leaves or shovel snow for elderly or disabled neighbors

Removing leaves or snow can be done as an after school program or weekend event. In warmer climates, students could plant flowers to beautify neighbors’ yards and the community. See if a local home store or nursery will donate the plants.

Create a game day at a local home for adults with disabilities

Call local group homes to see if they would appreciate a day of games and snacks for their residents. Have children bring in their favorite games to share.

Sixth to Eighth Grades

Walk or Groom animals at a local shelter

Contact your local animal shelter and ask them if they have volunteer opportunities. If they don’t have room for volunteers, children can collect food for the animals or raise money for the shelter.

Volunteer at a local soup kitchen or homeless shelter

Most soup kitchens are adept at having roles for all ages of volunteers. Volunteers can be used to serve food, make placemats for the tables, and read stories to younger children.

Participate in charity walks or runs

Involve your class in participating in a previously scheduled run or walk or create an event in which the school can participate.

Create a community health fair

Help students learn more about healthy eating, exercise and other factors that contribute to good health. Have students serve as teachers and facilitators of community discussions of health living practices.

Sponsor an Art Show

Have students create art projects with Dr. Martin Luther King’s teachings as a theme. Have a student panel to award prizes for various age groups or project types. A bake sale could also be included in this project to benefit a local charity. Close the event with students reading one of Dr. King’s speeches.

Additional Resources:

Do Something (www.dosomething.org) Provides the tools and resources for you to convert your ideas and energy into positive action.
Generation On (www.generationon.org) Inspires, equips, and mobilizes youth to take action that changes the world and themselves through service.  Learn more about their programs and resources!
Youth Service America (www.ysa.org) Manages, among other programs, Global Youth Service Day and the Semester of Service. Click the links below to view the toolkit and guide respectively for these initiatives.


Saturday, October 21, 2017

STUDENT REVIEW of READING BOOT CAMP

Dear Teachers,

I think the whole school should do READING BOOT CAMP; 
Mexican pizza
because I went from a 210 to a 234 (NWEA MAP) and my reading Lexile went from a 685 to a 1110 in 20 days! In the morning we get out what we call a speller. A speller is a book filled with words, fluency drills, poems, national reading vocabulary and kung fu words (Tier 2 & Tier 3 academic vocabulary), kung fu words are academic words by grade level we need to MASTER that are really hard. Another thing we do is we sit in cop cars cop cars are when one chair is facing one way and the other chair the other way. We do cop cars so both partners could see the text. When we have time we go to 2nd-grade classes like Mrs. Kirkendall's class.We also go to Mrs. Benoit's class we even sung a song with them and put it on youtube. We sing songs with them to help them read more fluently, to help them read with expression and to help them learn English. Mr.Taylor on the first weeks of school for homework gave us a book with really hard fairy tailes. That is called the blue fairy book.after READING BOOTCAMP it made reading a book more easy. Another book we read is Because Of Winn Dixie. It's about a girl that just moved to a new place, doesn't have any friends, that ends up meeting a dog that helps her meet friends. Mr. Taylor gives us all the same book to make sure kids are reading and so our partner can ask us questions and we can understand the question is about (essential questions). Are you wondering how we do our fluency test? What we do is we sit in cop cars (Kagan cooperative learning). Mr.Taylor gives us one minute on the board. And we read the passage. At the end, our partner tells us how we did on our words. Mr.Taylor gave us American juku to help us with our reading comprehension (Socratic seminars using released EOG test questions ). Juku in Japan is like additional school to them. Vocabulary sparkle is another one of the fun things we did. Vocabulary sparkle is when Mr. Taylor gives us a word and we have to define so we know if we studied the word and we really studied.We get it right we get a spice drop and if we don't we have to sit down. My favorite reward is Mexican pizza. Mexican pizza is a flour tortilla with cheese pepperoni and jalapenos, the only way you get some is if you work hard. Some songs we have learned are What the World Needs now and Across the universe. We put what the world needs now on youtube and sing along. If you think all of that was fun give reading boot camp a chance and tell everyone to do reading boot camp. 9/22/2010

Dyslexia, Phonics & Whole Language

A Cautionary Tale: My Story

Phonics/Alphabetics vs. Whole Language: I will not presume to give advice on this subject or try to argue a point as this is such a hot topic these days. 
I was diagnosed with dyslexia and dysgraphia in elementary school, I was told I would never learn to read or write. Please email me if you have any questions at seansart@hotmail.com
Phonics was a dead end for me after 6 months and just made me
more confused as it was taught. I was absolutely disgusted with controlled vocabulary books by age eight, with cats, mats, bats, and rats by the end of second grade. Four years of reading that rubbish with no real progress in reading. My first memories of school are feelings of inadequacy and shame. The earliest memory is trying and trying to learn how to write my name legibly. I was lost from the start learning letters and even worse trying to print letters that were dancing all over the page. It was almost impossible for me to write or copy letters because they were reversed, upside down and illegible by the time my mind tried to decipher them. Most students learned to write their names in kindergarten. In first grade and beyond, I was not able to write my name unless I had an example to copy from, even in second grade, and beyond. Worse than learning to write words was the entire reading process. Letter recognition and phonemic awareness seemed alien and incomprehensible. To me 'p,' 'b,' 'q,' and 'd' were all the same letter. How do you learn to read using phonics-based reading or letter sound discrimination if the letters are always changing? I just resorted to guessing or pretending to sound things out to make my teachers happy. I did learn to listen very carefully so I could memorize some books to pass as if I could actually read, but that only works so long. My writing never advanced passed perfunctory imitation. Even with the examples in front of me, my version was a mess. When placed into reading groups, I was always in the lowest quartile group, or as I joke, the "milkweed group," or the "crows" -- never the "roses,” or the "eagles." Inevitably, I was stuck reading with the boy who never bathed and acted like he was operating on two pots of coffee (ADHD poster child). I would select a chapter book that looked interesting and the teacher would say “That is too difficult for
you Sean”. What I heard was, “You’re too stupid to read it Sean”. I spent most of my reading time looking at picture books or daydreaming-- never reading. By second grade I was feeling even more depressed and worthless. I was eventually diagnosed with a learning disability when I failed to learn to read by the end of third grade. The term dyslexia was used for the acrobatics that the letters were doing on the page that I was instructed to decipher.

Teaching me phonemic awareness and letter recognition was like trying to drive a car from the trunk. Three years of special education phonics and even more phonics-based books didn't get me very far. Trepidation wasn’t the word I was feeling when initially evaluated for a learning disability but more a sense of relief that my charade was over. Finally, I was going to learn how to read. My happiness died quickly when the reality of more phonics was the prescription. I realized very quickly I was alone in my journey to learn how to read. I just could not make the connections between the sounds and the letters. None of the experts had a clue what to do except more of the same. no measurable progress in my
reading made me hate books and reading. The five finger rule is great for students at grade level or above, but it keeps students like me who struggle with reading in the remedial literary doldrums. After ten years of teaching all aspects of reading and my own experience, I have observed that students top out after six months in phonics and need to transition to becoming sight readers.
Phonics in the context of great poetry and literature is a powerful teaching tool.Yet, I know there is a point of reciprocity or diminishing returns that has to be respected and looked for. Eventually, I learned to read with the help and advice of a very wise librarian. Read what you have a passion for, and forget the five finger rule.

Phonics Vs. Whole Language

A thought on Phonics vs. Whole Language: A billion people in China, Japan, and other countries that use logographic character-based language have no phonics. How do they learn to read? They learn the character by sight.

Whole Language "The biggest arguments tend to be focused on student interest. Whole Language proponents claim that we may be doing more harm than good when we force our children to learn systematically and intensively with workbooks and basal readers. BORING!!! "

Whole Language as I was taught has at its core, the five component of all best practice reading philosophies. The focus is to use real literature to get to your goal of Literacy. Start with Dr. Seuss and teach phonemic awareness in the context of the literature and move forward, but this may have a point of reciprocity. If 70% of your 4th-5th-6th-grade class is not reading at grade level you may kill the desire to read by using primary literature and beginning reading methods. You must introduce literature that motivates the reader and again teach phonemic awareness in the context of the adolescent literature.

Is Phonics really always the best method for teaching a crude-phonemic based language?
"METHODZ ov teeching reeding hav graevly impruuvd sins Max Müller roet dhe wurdz kwoeted abuv. Neverdheles, eeven nou lurning to spel iz a far longger proeses for dhe Inglish chield dhan for children in meny udher kuntriz, such az Jurmany, Italy and Finland, and eeven dhe naetiv children ov dhe Goeld Koest and vaeryus udher parts ov Afrika."http://www.spellingsociety.org 

"Dhe diferens iz not to be eksplaend bie asueming infeeryorrity on dhe part ov Inglish teecherz. It iz due to dhe unfonetik karrakter ov Inglish speling. Dhe speling ov Jurman, Italyan and Finish iz faerly fonetik, whiel dhe nue orthografiz ov Fante, Twi, Ewe and a number ov udher Afrikan langgwejez ar kompleetly soe." http://www.spellingsociety.org


Dyslexics have a real problem dealing with the 4000 phonemics exceptions in common English.

Alphabetics Phonemes and Phonics

PHONEMIC AWARENESS

The knowledge and manipulation of sounds in spoken words.

PHONICS The relationship between written and spoken letters and sounds.

READING FLUENCY, INCLUDING ORAL READING SKILLS

The ability to read with accuracy, and with appropriate rate, expression, and phrasing.

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

The knowledge of words, their definitions, and context.

READING COMPREHENSION STRATEGIES

The understanding of meaning in text.”

The foundations of learning English is the use of 44 Phonemes or sounds of the English Language
learning letter sounds (as distinct from the letter names);

For example, /mm/ not muh, /ss/ not suh, /ff/ not fuh. The letter names can be taught later but should not be taught in the early stages.
learning the 44 sounds and their corresponding letters/letter groups;

The English Alphabet Code 'Key' : 44 phonemes with their common 'sound pattern' representations:

Vowels (19):
|a| mat
|ae| ape, baby, rain, tray, they, eight
|air| square, bear
|ar| jar, fast
|e| peg, bread
|ee| sweet, me, beach, key, pony
|i| pig, wanted
|ie| kite, wild, light, fly
|o| log, orange
|oe| bone, boat, snow
|oi| coin, boy
|oo| book, would, put
|ow| down, house
|or| fork, ball, sauce, law,
|u| plug, glove
|ur| burn, teacher, work, first
|ue| blue, moon, screw, tune
|uh| (schwa) button, computer, hidden, doctor
|w| wet, wheel

Consonants (25):
|b| boy, rabbit
|ks|gz| box exist
|c|k| cat |key, duck, school
|ch| chip, watch
|d| dog, ladder
|f| fish, coffee, photo, tough
|g| gate, egg, ghost
|h| hat, whole
|j| jet, giant, cage, bridge
|l| lip, bell, sample
|m| man, hammer, comb
|n| nut, dinner, knee, gnat
|ng| ring, singer
|p| pan, happy
|kw| queen
|r| rat, cherry, write
|s| sun, dress, house, city, mice
|sh| ship, mission, station, chef
|t| tap, letter, debt
|th| thrush
|th| that
|v| vet, sleeve
|y| yes
|z| zip, fizz, sneeze, is, cheese
|zh| treasure
learning to read words using sound blending;
reading stories featuring the words the students have learned to sound out;
demonstration exercises to show they comprehend the stories
From Wiki

The Limits of Phonics and Phonemic Awareness

Friday, October 20, 2017

Smarter Balanced Math Test PDF

SBAC GRADE 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 Smarter Balanced Math Practice Test | PDF Paper-based math test | Math Practice Test

Math Practice Test & Scoring Guide Grade 3
Math Practice Test & Scoring GuideGrade 4
Math Practice Test & Scoring GuideGrade 5
Math Practice Test & Scoring GuideGrade 6


Smarter Balanced Math Practice Test Online Portal

Grade 3 Math Paper Practice Test Download
Grade 3 Math PBT Practice Test Answer Key Download
Grade 3 Math Large Print Practice Test Download

Grade 4 Math Paper Practice Test Download
Grade 4 Math PBT Practice Test Answer Key Download
Grade 4 Math Large Print Practice Test Download

Vocabulary and Language Learning

Indirect vocabulary and language learning: Students learn most language and vocabulary through conversations with family and teachers, and through being read to and reading on their own. Today, too many families are stretched for time and resource, many students come to school with a large language and vocabulary gap. TEACHERS are the only hope for many students today.
"Children are made readers on the laps of their parents." — Emilie Buchwald
Learning Language Vocabulary Indirectly: Children learn the
meaning of most words indirectly, through everyday experiences with oral and written language--e.g., through rich conversations with adults, through being read to, and through reading extensively on their own. Students learn language by listening and making connections with auditory memory. Struggling readers need those audio learning cues even more and fall far behind their peers in overall language development. Struggling students sitting silently with a book will get very little out of the experience without the auditory component. READING ALOUD daily and participating in rich conversations is critical for ALL at-risk students to develop academic language.

Students should always have the ability to listen to a model reading.  Listing labs, audio books, podcast, and buddy buzzing are all part of language classroom. When I read, the students read along in their own book, or listening to an audiobook, students always have the text in front of them.

[PDF]Vocabulary Improvement and Reading in English Language Learners ...
at improving vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension in English ... sectional analyses indicated a large gap between English language learners and ...

[PDF]Oral Language and Vocabulary Development (PDF)
What is oral language development? 2. What does ... Learning Language is Developmental. Four to Five .... The vocabulary gap between struggling readers and ...

[PDF]Teaching English Language Learners, Claude Goldenberg, Summer ...
English language learners (ELLs) do not speak a word of English and are not literate in .... use, and possessing and using content-specific vocabulary and modes of .... points larger than the gaps between students who are and are not eligible ...

[PDF]Narrowing the Gap - Scholastic
.Research focused on school-age second language learnerssimilarly ... The scarcity of systematic, intentional vocabulary and language ..... Available: http://www.cal.org/ericcll/teachers/teachers.pdf.

[PDF]Learning Vocabulary without Tears: A Comparative Study of the ... - HKR
enjoyed doing the jigsaw task more than the information gap task. To sum up, the ..... languageinstruction, emphasizing the role and needs of language learners. One of the most ...... article-vocab.pdf, collected on 6th of April. Nuan, David ...

[PDF]The Benefits of Second Language Study - Connecticut State ...
Early second language study promotes achievement in English vocabulary and reading skills. (Masciantonio ... Second language study narrows achievement gaps .....

[PDF]Research-Based Vocabulary Instruction for English Language Learners
 A major reading-achievement gap exists between English language ... vocabularylearning is immensely critical to ELLs' English language acquisition. ...... http://www2.hawaii.edu/~readfl/rfl/April2010/articles/laufer.pdf. Laufer ...

[PDF]Classrooms That Promote Academic Language and Vocabulary ...
Provide English language learners (ELLs) with opportunities to practice ... Closing the gap: Addressing the vocabulary needs of English-language learners in ... Retrieved from http://www.centeroninstruction.org/files/ELL2-Newcomers.pdf.

[PDF]The Effects of Vocabulary Intervention on Young ... - NYU Steinhardt
and kindergarten children's oral language development. The authors quanti- .... 3. Is there evidence thatvocabulary interventions narrow the achievement gap?

[PDF]Closing the Achievement Gap for English Language Learners Yvonne ...
Closing the Achievement Gap for English Language Learners. Yvonne and ... Students learn the academic vocabulary of the content area. Connect Content ...

[PDF]THE IMPORTANCE OF VOCABULARY IN LANGUAGE LEARNING ...
Vocabulary learning is an essential part in foreign language learning as the ... as a foreign language(EFL) learning vocabulary items plays a vital role in all

[PDF]The process of vocabulary learning - University of Canberra
While research in China has focused on vocabulary learning strategies and ... vocabulary strategy use, students' language learning beliefs and examined ...

[PDF]methods and approaches in vocabulary teaching and their ... - IS MU
Principles of learning and teaching vocabulary. 10. 3.2. How words are remembered. 11. 3.3 Other important factors in language learning process 13.

[PDF]The Vocabulary-Learning Strategies of Foreign-Language ... - CiteSeerX
The Vocabulary-Learning Strategies of. Foreign-Language Students. Michael J. Lawson and Donald Hogben. Flinders University. Using a think-aloud procedure ...

[PDF]Vocabulary in a Second Language - Compleat Lexical Tutor
trajectories in second language acquisition; and written language learning in .... papers that were presented at the Second-Language Vocabulary Acquisition.

[PDF]Language, Culture and Learning - Teaching and Learning Languages ...
Language is at the heart of language teaching and learning and teachers need to constantly ... for language learners just to know grammar and vocabulary.

[PDF]84 LEARNING VOCABULARY IN EFL CONTEXTS ... - Novitas-ROYAL
: Vocabulary learning is one of the major challenges foreign language learners face during the process of learning a language. One way to alley the ...

The Cosmic Guide to Reading

Learning To Read: The Cosmic Skill Everyone Needs!


The most potent drink in the Universe is the “Pan Galactic Gargle Blaster”, a cocktail based on Janx Spirit. The drinks effect "is like having your brain smashed out by a slice of lemon wrapped round a large gold brick." The most potent skill in the universe is "literacy" READING. The power of literacy is transformational, it is like having your mind expanded by a slice of supernova, wrapped round a gravity wave of cosmic knowledge, surrounded by a golden universal consciousness.


The recipe for the Blaster is more complex than the recipe for literacy!

"Take the juice from one bottle of that Ol' Janx Spirit. Pour into it one measure of water from the seas of Santraginus V, Allow three cubes of Arcturan Mega-gin to melt into the mixture Allow four liters of Fallian marsh gas to bubble through it Over the back of a silver spoon float a measure of Qualactin Hypermint extract, redolent of all the heady odors of the dark Qualactin Zones. Drop in the tooth of an Algolian Suntiger. Watch it dissolve, spreading the fires of the Algolian suns deep into the heart of the drink. Sprinkle Zamphour. Add an olive. Drink...but very carefully."

The recipe for literacy! Take out a great book, find a comfy place, and read with your child. Repeat daily as needed, in just a few years you will have your very own sentient being. 


Dedicated to Douglas Adams

Differentiated Instruction, Assessment, and Learning

Differentiated Instruction or Personalized Education Plans

Differentiated instruction, and Differentiated assessment, and Differentiated learning?

Every student receives instruction based on individual interest,
learning preference, learning style, readiness level, ability, and or preferred mode of learning, wow. Wow is right, this may work for homeschoolers but may quickly diminish in its effectiveness in a classroom of 34 students! One teacher with 34 students and they want quality differentiated instruction, classroom management, plus amazing test results! Is this goal really possible? Differentiated Instruction sounds like a wonderful theory or could be an Orwellian promise designed to keep teachers bouncing around like pinballs doing senseless retorts, with all students suffering mediocrity. Teachers need real solutions, not more Pedagogical Theories adapted in some far off academic institution.

I have a very simple educational philosophy "Teach to the TOP" and bring everyone along for the adventure, no matter the learning differences or learning style, all students benefit from a rich demanding curriculum. Individual interest, learning preference, learning style, readiness level, ability, a preferred mode of learning, is useless if your students' can't or won't participate in the learning! Sean Taylor M.Ed 

MY GOLDEN RULEs:
  1. Teach to the top
  2. Differentiated formative assessments
  3. Kagan cooperative learning 
  4. Micro-lectures and Whole Brain Teaching
  5. Keep the learning silly, novel, and absurd
RESOURCES FOR A Differentiated CLASSROOM.

[PDF]Culturally Responsive Differentiated Instructional ... - NYU Steinhardt
The theory behind differentiated instruction is that teachers should vary and adapt their approaches to fit the vast diversity of students in the classroom. ... teachers, programs and resources. ..... Instruction/downloads/DI/7BuildingBlocksOfDI.pdf.

[PDF]The Nuts and Bolts of Differentiation - WKU
If we have a differentiated classroom, can it be fair? (What will. “fair” mean in ... ▫How do I organize materials and resources? ▫What are ... ey%29.pdf. ▫ Survival ...

[PDF]25 Quick Formative Assessments - Great Schools Partnership
Differentiating Instruction in Response to Formative Assessments . . . . . . . . 7. Formative .... more important than in a differentiated classroom, where students of all levels of readiness sit .... classroom resources to complete the task. □ Provide a ...

[PDF]Differentiating Instruction with Technology in K–5 Classrooms - ISTE
This excerpt provides an overview of differentiated instruction, and discusses the basic principles ... Our classrooms today are more diverse than ever, with a wide range of ..... masters, student activities, clip art, quizzes, and teacher resources.

[PDF]Differentiating Instruction: Making It Happen in Classrooms
Those resources are important supports for teachers and admin- istrators who desire to understand the concept of differentiating instruction and to identify.

[PDF]How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms
 The Learning Environment in a Differentiated Classroom .

[PDF]Teaching Every Student: Five Key Elements - UC Davis Health
Special educators are the experts in differentiating instruction and creating ...

[DOC]Differentiated Instruction and Implications for UDL ... - CAST.org
The report concludes with a listing of Web resources for further information ... The variation seen in a differentiated classroom is most frequently in the manner in ...

[PDF]Key Principles of a Differentiated Classroom - Orting School District
Differentiation is a teaching concept in which the classroom teacher plans for the ... and resourcesmore advanced than those commonly found at grade level, ...

[PDF]Differentiated Instruction - EduGAINS
It is just one of several resources in a multi-faceted professional learning strategy. ... A defining characteristic of a differentiated classroom is flexibility. Students ...

[PDF]Differentiation in action! - PDST
The resource aims to contextualise differentiation and to suggest a number of strategies to supportdifferentiated teaching and learning in the classroom.

[PDF]Reaching the Needs of All Learners - North Carolina Public School
Any given classroom will contain a heterogeneous mix of students with ... of differentiating the curriculum to meet the needs of all students, ... Resources. 4.

[PDF]The Differentiated Classroom - McCracken County Schools
The differentiated classroom : responding to the needs of all learners / Carol Ann .... resources, and myself so that I am an effective catalyst for maximizing talent ...

[PDF]Tiered Assignments In a differentiated classroom, a teacher uses ...
In a differentiated classroom, a teacher uses varied levels of tasks to ensure that ... Tiering can be based on challenge level, complexity, resources, outcome ...

[PDF]assessments - Somerset Academy
 more important than in a differentiated classroom, where students of all levels of readiness sit side .... classroom resources to complete the task.

[PDF]Responding to the Needs of All Learners - ASCD
Education Leaders as Catalysts for Differentiated Classrooms . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 .... ago: “How do I divide time, resources, and myself so that I am an effective.

[PDF]Websites and Apps That Support Differentiated Instruction - Heartland ..
Websites and Apps That Support Differentiated Instruction. Name ..... contains a mixture of classroom teaching resources and others .... color-illustrated PDF

THE LOST VALUE OF FAIRY TALES IN EDUCATION

THE LOST VALUE OF FAIRY TALES IN EDUCATION  

Using fairy tales to teach tolerance, empathy, respect, gratitude, and acceptance is a powerful tool against bullying. Fairy tales are excellent for teaching Emotional Intelligence or the soft skills that our society is needing more than ever.


LAURA F. KREADY 1916 “A STUDY OF FAIRY TALES”

In considering fairy tales for the child, the first question which presents itself is,"Why are fairy stories suited to the child, and what is their value ….?" Fairy tales bring joy into child life. The mission of joy has not been fully preached, but we know that joy works toward physical health, mental brightness, and moral virtue. In the education of the future, happiness together with freedom will be recognized as the largest beneficent powers that will permit the individual of four, from his pristine, inexperienced self-activity, to become that final, matured, self-expressed, self-sufficient, social development-the educated adult. 

Joy is the mission of art and fairy tales are art products. As such Pater would say, "For Art comes to you, proposing to give nothing but the highest quality to your moments as they pass, and simply for those moments' sake. Not the fruit of experience, but experience, is the end." Such quality came from the art of the fairy tale into the walk of a little girl, for whom even the much-tabooed topic of the weather took on a new, fresh charm. In answer to a remark concerning the day she replied, "Yes, it's not too hot, and not too cold, but just right." All art, being a product of the creative imagination, has the power to stimulate the creative faculties. "For Art, like Genius," says Professor Woodberry, "is common to all men, it is the stamp of the soul in them." All are creatures of imitation and combination; and the little child, in handling an art product, puts his thought through the artist's mold and gains a touch of the artist's joy. 

Fairy tales satisfy the play spirit of childhood. Folk-tales are the product of a people in a primitive stage when all the world is a wonder-sphere. Most of our popular tales date from days when the primitive man took his evening meal of yava and fermented mead, and the dusky Sudra roamed the Punjab. "All these fancies are pervaded with that purity by which children seem to us so wonderful," said William Grimm. "They have the same blue-white, immaculate bright eyes." Children are in this same wonder stage. They believe that the world about throbs with life and is peopled with all manner of beautiful, powerful folk.



All children are poets, and fairy tales are the poetic recording of the facts of life. In this day of commercial enterprise, if we would fit children for life we must see to it that we do not blight the poets in them. In this day of emphasis on vocational training, we must remember there is a part of life unfed, un-nurtured, and un-exercised by industrial education. Moreover, whatever will be
accomplished in life will be the achievement of a free and vigorous life of the imagination. Before it was realized, everything new had existed in some trained imagination, fertile with ideas. The tale feeds the imagination, for the soul of it is a bit of play. It suits the child because in it he is not bound by the law of cause and effect, nor by the necessary relations of actual life. He is entirely in sympathy with a world where events follow as one may choose. He likes the mastership of the universe. And fairyland where there is no time; where troubles fade; where youth abides; where things come out all right-is a pleasant place. Furthermore, fairy tales are play forms. "Play," Bichter says, "is the first creative utterance of man." "It is the highest form in which the native activity of childhood expresses itself," says Miss Blow. Fairy tales offer to the little child an opportunity for the exercise of that self-active inner impulse which seeks expression in two kinds of play, the symbolic activity of free play and the concrete presentation of types. The play, The Light Bird, and the tale, The Bremen Town Musicians, both offer an opportunity for the child to express that pursuit of a light afar off, a theme which appeals to childhood. The fairy tale, because it presents an organized form of human experience, helps to organize the mind and gives to play the values of human life. By contributing so largely to the play spirit, fairy tales contribute to that joy of activity, of achievement, of cooperation, and of judgment, which is the joy of all work. This habit of school play, with its joy and freedom and initiative, is the highest goal to be attained in the method of university work. Fairy tales give the child a power of accurate observation. The habit of re-experiencing, of visualization, which they exercise, increases the ability to see, and is the contribution literature offers to nature study. In childhood acquaintance with the natural objects of everyday life is the central interest; in its turn, it furnishes those elements of experience upon which imagination builds. For this reason, it is rather remarkable that the story, which is omitted from the public school system of education, is perhaps the most valuable means of effecting that sense training, freedom, self-initiated play, repose, poise, and power of reflection, which are foundation stones of its structure. 


Fairy tales strengthen the power of emotion, develop the power of imagination, train the memory, and exercise the reason. Every day the formation of habits of mind during the process of education is being looked upon with a higher estimate. The formation of habits of mind through the use of fairy tales will become evident during following chapters. Fairy tales extend and intensify the child's social relations. They appeal to the child by presenting aspects of family life. Through them, he realizes his relations to his own parents: their care, their guardianship, and their love.Through this, he realizes different situations and social relations, and gains clear, simple notions of right and wrong. His sympathies are active for kindness and fairness, especially for the defenseless, and he feels deeply the calamity of the poor or the suffering and hardship of the ill-treated. He is in sympathy with that poetic justice which desires immediate punishment of wrong, unfairness, injustice, cruelty, or deceit. 

Through fairy tales, he gains a many-sided view of life. Through his dramas, with a power of sympathy which has seemed universal, Shakespeare has given the adult world many types of character and conduct that are noble. But fairy tales place in the hands of childhood all that the thousands and thousands of the universe for ages have found excellent in character and conduct. They hold up for imitation all those cardinal virtues of love and self-sacrifice,- which is the ultimate criterion of character,-of courage, loyalty, kindness, gentleness, fairness, pity, endurance, bravery, industry, perseverance, and thrift. Thus fairy tales build up concepts of family life and of ethical standards, broaden a child's social sense of duty, and teach him to reflect. Besides developing his feelings and judgments, they also enlarge his world of experience. In the school, the fairy tale as one form of the story is one part of the largest means to unify the entire work or play of the child. In proportion as the work of art, nature-study, game, occupation, etc., is fine, it will deal with some part of the child's everyday life. The good tale parallels life. It is a record of a portion of the race reaction to its environment; and being a permanent record of literature, it records experience which is universal and presents situations most human. It is, therefore, material best suited to furnish the child with real problems. As little children have their thoughts and observations directed mainly toward people and centered about the home, the fairy tale rests secure as the intellectual counterpart to those thoughts. As self-expression and self-activity are the great natural instincts of the child, in giving opportunity to make a crown for a princess, mold a clay bowl, decorate a tree, play a game, paint the wood, cut paper animals, sing a lullaby, or trip a dance, the tale affords many problems exercising all the child's accomplishments in the variety of his work. This does not make the story the central interest, for actual contact with nature is the child's chief interest. But it makes the story, because it is an organized experience marked by the values of human life, the unity of the child's return or reaction to his environment. The tale thus may bring about that"living union of thought and expression which dispels the isolation of studies and makes the child live in varied, concrete, active relation to a common world." In the home, fairy tales employ leisure hours in a way that builds character. Critical moments of decision will come into the lives of all when no amount of reason will be a sufficient guide. Mothers who cannot follow their sons to college, and fathers who cannot choose for their daughters, can help their children best to fortify their spirits for such crises by feeding them with good literature. This, when they are yet little, will begin the rearing of a fortress of ideals which will support true feeling and lead constantly to noble action. Then, too, in the home, the illustration of his tale may give the child much pleasure. For this is the day of fairy-tale art; and the child's satisfaction in the illustration of the well-known tale is limitless. It will increase as he grows older, as he understands art better, and as he becomes familiar with the wealth of beautiful editions which are at his command. 

And finally, though not of least moment, fairy tales afford a vital basis for language training and thereby take on a new importance in the child's English. Through the fairy tale, he learns the names of things and the meanings of words.

One English fairy tale, The Master of all Masters, is a ludicrous example of the tale built on this very theme of names and meanings. Especially in the case of foreign children, in a tale of repetition, such as The Cat and the Mouse, Teeny Tiny, or The Old Woman and her Pig, will the repetitive passages be an aid to verbal expression. The child learns to follow the sequence of a story and gains a sense of order. He catches the note of definiteness from the tale, which thereby clarifies his thinking. He gains the habit of reasoning to consequences, which is one form of a perception of that universal law which rules the world, and which is one of the biggest things he will ever come upon in life. Never can he meet any critical situation where this habit of reasoning to consequences will not be his surest guide in a decision. Thus fairy tales, by their direct influence upon habits of thinking, effect language training. Fairy tales contribute to language training also by providing another form of that basic content which is furnished for reading. In the future, the child will spend more time in the kindergarten and early first grade in acquiring this content, so that having enjoyed the real literature, when he reads, later on, he will be eager to satisfy his own desires.

Then reading will take purpose for him and be accomplished almost without drill and practically with no effort. The reading book will gradually disappear as a portion of his literary heritage. In the kindergarten, the child will learn the play forms, and in the first grade the real beginnings, of phonics and of the form of words in the applied science of spelling. In music, he will learn the beginnings of the use of the voice. This will leave him free, when he begins reading later, to give attention to the thought reality back of the symbols. When the elements combining to produce good oral reading are cared for in the kindergarten and in the first grade, in the subjects of which they properly form a part, the child, when beginning to read, no longer will be needlessly diverted, his literature will contribute to his reading without interference, and his growth in language will become an improved, steady accomplishment.