Monday, June 11, 2018

13 Heuristic Math Strategies: Singapore Math Method

Heuristic mathematics models, process, and methods, heuristic math techniques and strategies, or simply heuristics, are cognitive problem-solving strategies that become intuitive with repeated exposure. The problem-solving strategies "intuitive shortcuts" are formed in the students' mind after repeated rehearsal, practice and exposure to multi-step or complex math problems. Heuristics develop into the rules of thumb, today they incorporate 13 problem-solving models designed to help students make sense of difficult math problems. The 13 heuristics are grouped into 4 categories: “representation heuristics”, “simplification heuristics”, “pathway heuristics”, and “generic heuristics”. Together they form a model of problem-solving strategies in mathematics.





The 13 heuristic math problem solving strategies:

1. Act it out 2. Use a diagram/model 3. Use guess-and-check 4. Make a systematic list 5. Look for patterns 6. Work backwards 7. Use before-after concept 8. Make suppositions 9. Restate the problem in another way 10. Simplify the problem 11. Solve part of the problem 12. Think of a related problem 13. Use equations

External links for lessons and further research:

[PDF]21st Century Competencies & Singapore Mathematics Curriculum
Curriculum Framework established by the Singapore Ministry of .... cognitive work and routine manual labor – the types of tasks that are ... Inventing new problem-solving heuristics when standard protocols have failed.


[PDF]Singapore Math Research and Efficacy - Michigan's Integrated ...
Singapore math emphasizes problem solving and positive attitudes toward ... Ministry of Education uses a pentagon with problem solving in the ...


[PDF]Top-Down Approach to Teaching Problem Solving Heuristics in ...
Singapore mathematics syllabuses identified eleven heuristics which are applicable to problem solving at ... (Heuristics 12 and 13 are not in the primary syllabus.) Though ... methods and strategies that can be helpful in problem solving. In sum ..... 2005, from

[PDF]A Metacognitive Approach to Support Heuristic Solution of ...
can be used in mathematical problem solving, they can be classified into four categories: ... Ministry of Education Singapore (MOE), have identified 13 heuristics that are ... problems, For Bruner (1960) they are methods and strategies that can be helpful in ..... from

[PDF]Heuristic Strategies and Deductive Reasoning in Problem Solving
Use of Heuristics in Mathematical Problem Solving. 4. 2.1 Introduction to ... 4.2.1 Deduction as a Formal Syntactic Process based on Rules 13.

[PDF]problem solving in school mathematics based on heuristic strategies
forms the basis for successful mathematics education; solving of carefully selected problems ... It deals with solving of problems using the following heuristic strategies: Analogy, .... 28 pupils aged 13) and two upper secondary grammar schools

[PDF]Problem-Solving Through Problems - ASU
important problem-solving techniques typically encountered in undergradu- ... The book is both an anthology of problems and a manual of instruction. .... will be concerned with the heuristics of solving mathematical problems. ... Page 13 ...

[PDF]LEARNING PROBLEM SOLVING HEURISTICS ... - Semantic Scholar
Much human learning of mathematics takes place from worked examples, yet this is a ... the heuristicswere learned through attempts at problem solving, and not through ..... There has been a reluctance to concentrate purely on goal-based techniques that ... Proceedings of the 13th International Joint Conference on Artificial ...

[PDF]Learning Problem-Solving Strategies by Using Math Games 1.2312016
Learning some general strategies for problem solving is a unifying theme in this book ..... 13. Computer Programming as a Game. Chapter 9 of this book briefly ...  A heuristic is a step-by-step set of instructions designed to solve a specific type of problem.

[PDF]Problem Solving In Singapore Math - Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
 - strategies for problem solving, what Polya called heuristics. Many of ....

[PDF]Sixth graders and non-routine problems: Which strategies are decisive ...
 of non-routine problems and strategies in mathematics textbooks and syllabi ... are 12-13years old as it is in most countries. Sixth grade level ....

[PDF]Mathematical problem solving in primary school - Utrecht University ...
Key words: mathematical problem solving / early algebra / textbooks / ICT / online game / .... including domain-specific knowledge, heuristic strategies, metacognitive skills and .... 13. More specifically, the non-routine problems in this study contain interrelated .... from http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/25/12/34009000.pdf.

[PDF]Heuristic Method for Decision-Making in Common Scheduling ... - MDPI
 elements: preliminary analysis of the problem, techniques for the choice of ... scheduling [11], stochastic scheduling problems [12,13], ... There are many different approaches used to solve scheduling problems, mathematical.

[PDF]Proceedings - Le-Math
13 have all undergone a rigorous reviewing process by members of the ...
Summarizes problem solving strategies, with the use of algorithms ... for solving problems outside the domains of mathematics and science.

[PDF]an investigation into the use of problem-solving heuristics to improve ...
Heuristics, problem-solving processes and mathematical modelling. 12. 2.1.1Heuristics ..... These four phases have 13 grades in total and in theory, the ages of .... algebra. It focuses on non-lecture instructional strategies where the researcher- ...... http://www.math.kent.edu/~edd/HeidPaper.pdf. Arnon, I.

[PDF]Problem Solving in Mathematics Education - DiVA portal
from the 13th ProMath conference, September 2011 (pp. ... conduct of an action strategy, the design of meaningful mathematical tasks and the situatedness.
Missing: heuristic

[PDF]The Effects of Problem Posing on Student Mathematical Learning - Eric
- Keywords: mathematical problem posing, teaching strategies, meta-analysis. 1. ... 13; 2014. 228 teachers incorporated a problem-posing intervention, classrooms .... Also, a manual search was .... heuristic (pose a related.

[PDF]Pentagon Curriculum Framework - Mathematics and Mathematics ...
Maths & Maths Education ... 1986, 4+ years, Institute of Education (Singapore) ... factors to help students become better problem solvers. • This session on a new ...

[PDF]Philosophy and Pedagogical Approach of Singapore Math
a problem-solving approach for the teaching and learning of mathematics. Thoughtful application of ... The fact that problem solving is the central idea in Singapore math can be seen in the pentagon from Singapore's. Mathematics Framework ...

[PDF]The Singaporean Mathematics Curriculum: Connections ... - CiteSeerX
Singaporean mathematics curriculum document is probably no different from .... of the model isproblem solving and the five sides forming the pentagon are: ...

[PDF]Math in Focus: Singapore Math by Marshall Cavendish, for Grades K-8 ...
to U.S. classrooms. Math in Focus is based on the curriculum and pedagogy in Singapore. Singapore math emphasizes problem solving and positive attitudes toward mathematics, while ... the pentagon; which is their curriculum framework.

Sunday, June 10, 2018

RECIPROCAL TEACHING Reading Comprehension

Reciprocal teaching breaks reading compression down into 4 main parts: Questioning, Clarifying, Summarizing, and Predicting.

Reciprocal teaching is a collaborative peer teaching peer leaning structure. The cooperative learning structure is similar to a Kagan jigsaw where students are assigned a clearly defined learning task.  Small groups are assigned a close reading task. Students first examine and analyze a text using targeted close reading strategies.  The strategies and the individual close reading task can include: illustrating ideas, summarizing details, questioning, making connections, clarifying terms and concepts, drawing conclusions, making an inference, and or predicting. The students learn to close read complex text with the strategic goal of teaching others their part of the jigsaw, they learn to guide group discussions to help all participants engage with the text at the deepest levels.  


What is a reciprocal teaching? What is reciprocal teaching by Vygotsky? What are the close reading strategies used in reciprocal teaching: summarizing, question generating, clarifying, and predicting?


[PDF]Reciprocal Teaching - NBSS
Reciprocal Teaching (Palinscar & Brown 1984) is a guided reading comprehension strategy that encourages students to develop the skills that effective readers ...

[PDF]Reciprocal teaching - Department of Education and Training Victoria
Reciprocal teaching is an interactive teaching strategy for supporting readers to develop comprehension strategies. It is particularly useful for ESL students who ...

[PDF]Reciprocal Teaching - UC Davis Extension
Reciprocal Teaching. Purpose. Reciprocal teaching is an instructional strategy used to build reading comprehension of both informational and narrative text ...

[PDF]Reciprocal Teaching - Reading Rockets
Reciprocal Teaching Worksheet. Prediction: Before you begin to read the selection, look at the title or cover, scan the pages to read ...

[PDF]Reciprocal Teaching Session - Curriculum Services Canada
This general session format provides you with a starting point to introduce Reciprocal Teaching (RT) to your class. Materials. Choose a well-structured text for ...

[PDF]Reciprocal Teaching: Critical Reflection on Practice - Eric
Reciprocal teaching as an evidence-based practice is also examined ... Reciprocal teaching is an instructional practice ......

[PDF]Reciprocal Teaching and Comprehension - Eric
The purpose of this study was to investigate how reciprocal teaching affected vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension in four at-risk students in a ...

[PDF]Reciprocal teaching - Basic Knowledge 101
Reciprocal teaching is an instructional activity that takes the form ... the processes involved withreciprocal teaching (Stricklin,. 2011).

[PDF]Reciprocal Teaching: Powerful Hands-on Comprehension Strategy
Reciprocal teaching (Palinscar & Brown, 1986), a research-based ... reciprocal teaching as well as struggling readers. Here are ...

[PDF]Reciprocal Teaching: A Reading Comprehension Package
Reciprocal Teaching: A Reading. Comprehension Package. Description: The intervention package teaches students to use reading comprehension strategies ...

[PDF]Reciprocal Teaching Strategy - Intel
Reciprocal teaching (Palincsar, 1984) is a cooperative grouping strategy that calls on students to become “the teacher” and work as a group to bring meaning to ...

[PDF]Reciprocal Teaching of Comprehension-Fostering and - Ucsc
Reciprocal Teaching of Comprehension-. Fostering and Comprehension-. Monitoring Activities. Annemarie Sullivan Palincsar and Ann L. Brown. Center for the ...

[PDF]The effectiveness of the methods of reciprocal teaching
Abstract. Reciprocal teaching (RT) is a process involving four distinct activities (questioning, clarifying, summarising and predicting) employed in a student-led ...

Saturday, June 2, 2018

Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR)

Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR): Is a Cooperative and Collaborative Reading Comprehension Strategy and Instructional Model designed to develop deeper academic content knowledge and enhance reading comprehension in students. Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) is a top strategy for teaching reading comprehension when paired with complex and demanding texts.




[PDF]Teaching Young Readers to use Reading Comprehension Strategies
Readers: Collaborative Strategic Reading. READing ... Collaborative Strategic Reading, a model for teaching reading .... CSR was primarily designed to be used with expository text. .... Put the definitionback in the sentence to be sure it.

[PDF]Collaborative Strategic Reading - National Center on Secondary ...
Collaborative Strategic Reading is an approach that works well in mixed-ability classrooms and helps students improve their reading comprehension. CSR can be implemented in a subject-area classroom, such as science or social studies, to improve student comprehension of expository text.

[PDF]The Impact of Collaborative Strategic Reading on the Reading ...
Strategic Reading on the Reading Comprehension of Grade 5 Students in ... Dr. Joseph Dimino is a coauthor of Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR), the ...

[PDF]CSR - Collaborative Strategic Reading - The Meadows Center for ...
CSR. Collaborative Strategic Reading. 4. Dr. Sharon Vaughn. Dr. Michael Solis. The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk. The University of Texas ...

[PDF]Collaborative Strategic Reading - Amazon S3
Reading? Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) is a peer-mediated reading comprehension ...Collaborative Strategic Reading was developed to improve reading comprehension skills for students with ..... ..

[PDF]Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) - International Journal of ...
Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) within Cognitive and Metacognitive. Strategies ..... Reading matrix.com/articles/asraf ahm ad/article/pdf.

[PDF]Using Collaborative Strategic Reading - CiteSeerX
CSR [Collaborative. Strategic Reading] is an excellent tech- nique for teaching students readingcomprehension and building vocabulary and also working ...

Top 10 Reading Comprehension Strategies

Reading comprehension is the essence and purpose of reading. 

Rule # ONE! Get rid of your reading workbooks and your teachers pay teachers worksheets! 
When students are learning something new? Follow the 10/2/24/7+ Rule. Teach a concept, review it after ten minutes, again 2 hours later, then yet again 24 hours later, yep again 7 days later, and periodically review, summarize, and retest to cement the memories. I use this for all critical academic concepts and tier 2 and tier 3 academic vocabulary!
1. Develop Oracy: Read alouds, singing alongs, role-playing,
plays, field trips, think alouds (metacognition), developing academic listening, questioning, and "conversation skills" and reflective listening skills. 

2. Improve Reading Fluency: Phonics, Alphabetics, Phonemic awareness, Decoding, Word attack, Sight words, Expression, Automaticity of words,...

3. Scale Up Reading Vocabulary Knowledge: Building and developing erudite auditory and textual word and language knowledge is the first bridge to reading comprehension. 

4. Develop Multi-modal Close and Critical Reading Strategies: Interacting with the text at a deeper level that expands and grows academic background knowledge: Annotating text, ranking text, summering, cause and effect, compare and contrast, predicting, questioning, visualizing, illustrating, synthesizing. ...

5. Power Up Word Analysis Skills: Phonics and decoding, understanding the relationships between spelling, the pronunciation of letters, syllables to figure out unfamiliar words. Word Analysis Strategies help students to expand vocabulary knowledge by using the meanings and spellings of prefixes, root words, and suffixes. 

6. Enhance and Upgrade Academic Word Knowledge: Developing cogent tier 2 and tier 3 academic word and language knowledge with daily word work. 

7. Get Cracking on Taking Effective Notes and Using Strategic Reading Journals: Developing note-taking skills. Using Two and three column Cornell notes, Reading Journals, Focused note tacking, Strategic note taking,  Graphic Organizers, 10, 24, 7, and REVIEW rule...

8. Build Cooperative and Collaborative Reading Skills: Kagan. Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR), Guided Reading, Reciprocal Teaching: Collaborative strategies to bring a deeper meaning to the text and build background knowledge
Comprehension Strategies Multiple Intelligence

9. Become Philosophers using Socratic Seminars (INQUIRY): The Socratic method uses a dialectical approach to understand information in a text at the deepest level.

10. What is your favorite reading compression strategy, instructional practice?

ORACY RESOURCES:

[PDF]Promoting the Development of Oracy and Literacy through Interactive ...
Learn in a fun and pressure-free environment. Children need to be interested in what they are learning (CDC, 2006). Learn through interaction. Children learn ...

[PDF]4 ORACY SKILL SETS – A GUIDE
4 ORACY SKILL SETS – A GUIDE. Four key verbal communication skill sets lie at the centre of our oracyprovision and underpin the development and delivery ...

[PDF]Language Learning Skills & Materials (Oracy and Literacy)
(Oracy and Literacy). Teaching Reading and Writing. Note. The HOU is responsible for the editing of the publication and for the development of the texts in ...

[PDF]Assessing Oracy throughout Year 7 Oracy Skill - Faculty of Education
A teacher will probably wish to use tasks throughout the year to assess capability in specific skills, or to consider students' overall oracy capability in specific ...

Reading Fluency RESOURCES:

[PDF]PDF Version - Florida Center for Reading Research
Phonemic Awareness. Phonics. Fluency. Identifying words accurately and fluently .... “Sight wordsinclude any word that readers have practised reading ...

[PDF]Pedagogy Overview: Phonological Awareness - Lexia Learning
children's ability to learn phonic word attack strategies that are important for ... Phonological awarenessskills are targeted in Lexia Reading Core5 through a ... This automaticity is essential for developingreading fluency and contributes to efficient and ... At first, students learn to decode words by applyingphonic word attack ...


[PDF]SpellRead: Every Student Reading Efficiently - School Health
spellRead combines rigorous phonemic and phonetic activities with active ... Phonological automaticityand reading fluency are necessary but not ... reading comprehension because decoding printed wordsat the word level ..... phonemes or to become aware of the alphabetic structure through which oral language can be.

[PDF]National Reading Panel - NICHD - NIH
central to learning to read—Alphabetics, Fluency, and ... The importance of phonemic awareness,phonics, ...... phonemes to blend words—which is decoding. ..... group, with the difference expressed in standard ...... of sight word reading and its relationship to recoding. In ... analysis and synthesis as word-attack skills.

[PDF]Summary of the Research Basis for Beginning Reading - IFERI
 Phonemic awareness is taught systematically and explicitly. Understanding the alphabetic code comes naturally ... based activities; direct instruction in phonics is ... Multiple word attack strategies should be taught ... Beginning readers are taught todecode words as.

[PDF]The Reading Process - PDST
Accurate word recognition: In order to improve reading fluency pupils should be ... Automaticity: This is the ability to read words without conscious decoding. ... They echo the teachers' expression and intonation etc. .... in alphabetical order pertaining .... meaning that 'Phonological awareness' is very different to 'Phonics'.

[PDF]The Importance of Automaticity and Fluency For Efficient Reading ...
proving automaticity and fluency is critical. Although the ... at the phrase, sentence, and text levels. Wood ... application of phonic word attack strategies ... alphabetic strategies to analyze words ... mic Awareness, Phonics and Sight Word ... phonemic awareness and the development ... to move from decoding to automatic.

[PDF]READING INTERVENTION IDEAS Phonological Awareness ...
Grade 1: blending phonemes into words, segmenting words into phonemes, deleting ... Eventually, have the student to say/sing the last word of the rhyming phrase without you. 2. ..... Reading Milestones: asight word approach to decoding .... develop phonemic awareness and discover how our alphabeticsystem works by.

Vocabulary Building: 

PDF]Expanding Vocabulary Knowledge: A Critical Bridge to Comprehension
What role does vocabulary knowledge play in comprehension? ... The more complextexts a child can read, the more words they ... The gap in levels of word knowledge .... bv_b1506_build_vocab_bookmark.pdf. 32 .... After story vocabulary development .... To build students' own meanings by connecting.

CLOSE and CRITICAL READING STRATEGIES: 

[PDF]A Close Look at Close Reading (PDF)
Close reading is thoughtful, critical analysis of a text that focuses on significant details or patterns in order to develop a deep, precise understanding of the text's form, craft, meanings, etc. It is a key requirement of the Common Core State Standards and directs the reader's attention to the text itself.

[PDF]Five close reading strategies
Five close reading strategies. (Adapted from an original blog post by Court Allam). I walked in to my first college class, Political Science 101, eager to learn.

[PDF]Close Reading, Vocabulary, and Text Dependent Questions
Three Key Strategies to. Implement Common. Core Standards. Close Reading, Vocabulary, and. Text Dependent Questions ...

[PDF]CLOSE AND CRITICAL READING
Effective readers engage in close reading to extract the most meaning from complex text. ... Circling specific items is also an effective close reading strategy.

[PDF]Steps for Close Reading
Read with a pencil. 4. Summarize in the left margin. 5. ... ask questions in the right margin. Steps forClose Reading. 1, 2, 3 ... simple-close-reading-strategies.html.


[PDF]Close Reading.pdf
It shouldn't come as a surprise, then, that when you read in order to write a paper, you must adopt certain strategies if you expect your efforts to be fruitful and.

[PDF]SUppORTING STUDENTS IN CLOSE READING - Center on ...
The emphasis on close reading in the ELA & Literacy CCSS means that ..... key words, types of sentence structures, visual components, and text cohesion strategies.7 ...... fisherandfrey.com/_admin/_filemanager/File/Text_Dependent.pdf.

[PDF]A Close Reading Strategy
A Close Reading Strategy. 1. Introduction. Provide some context (background) for the text. The instructor reads the text aloud. The students read the text ...

[PDF]Close Reading Strategy - The Syracuse City School District
Close Reading Strategy Tool Kit. Basic statements or questions of a close read includes: ∙ Let's look closer at this section of the text. / Let's investigate this part ...

[PDF]CLOSE READING EXAMPLES FOR SOCIAL STUDIES
literacy strategies that complement the close reading method. Finally, we understand that these examples are not perfect, and as we grow in our practice, we will ...

[PDF]Word Analysis – Student Workbook
Word Analysis refers to strategies used to figure out the meaning of ... word analysis skills, the ability to approximate the meaning of unfamiliar words is a skill ...

[PDF]MODULE 1 WORD STRUCTURE ANALYSIS:
vocabulary: using the parts of a word to unlock its meaning. .... Word structure analysis is just what it sounds like: using the structure, or parts, of a word to figure ...

[PDF]DesCartes (Combined) Subject: Reading Goal: Word Analysis and ...
Goal Strand: Word Analysis and Vocabulary Skills. RIT Score Range: Below 151. Skills and Concepts to Develop. Below 151. Skills and Concepts to Introduce.

[PDF]LD Online_Word Analysis to Expand Vocabulary Development.pdf
When students engage in “word analysis” or “word study,” they break words down into their smallest units of meaning—morphemes. Each morpheme has a ...

[PDF]Sylvia Greene's Informal Word Analysis Inventory - LINCS
Sylvia Greene's Informal Word Analysis Inventory. Directions: Reading (Decoding):. 1. Give the learner the "Learner Copy" of the inventory and explain that he/ ...

[PDF]Structural Analysis: Common Word Parts Following is a list of some ...
Structural Analysis: Common Word Parts. Following is a list of some common prefixes, roots, and suffixes along with their meanings and examples of words ...

[PDF]Vocabulary - Florida Center for Reading Research
Vocabulary. 2-3 Student Center Activities: Vocabulary. 2006 The Florida Center for Reading Research (Revised July, 2007). Word Analysis. Word Wake-Up.

[PDF]Vocabulary Vocabulary - Florida Center for Reading Research
Depending on the number of words, students may need more than one student ... Students sort wordsbased on understanding of meaning. 1. ..... Word Analysis.

[PDF]Knowledge Discovery Through Co-Word Analysis - IDEALS @ Illinois
co-occurrence frequency of pairs of words or phrases, co-word analysis is used to ... development of co-word analysis, summarizes the advantages and disad-.

ACADEMIC VOCABULARY RESOURCES: 

[PDF]TIER 2 and TIER 3 VOCABULARY TERMS – COMMON CORE STATE ...
TIER 2 and TIER 3 VOCABULARY TERMS – COMMON CORE STATE ... If you deepen your knowledge of something, you learn more about it or strengthen.

Common Core Vocabulary, Tier I, II and III Words
Common Core State Standards: Focus on Tier 2 & Tier 3 Academic Vocabulary. Tier 1 Basic words that commonly appear in spoken language. ... Tier 3 words are central to building knowledge and conceptual understanding within the various ...

[PDF]Three Vocabulary Strategies
Some Important. Definitions. You have been given stips of paper containing ... The vocabulary skills of students in my facility ... Both reading comprehension and academic ... The cumulative words of language ... Tier 2 words are more complex ..... http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/reading/practices/redbk5.pdf.

[PDF]Vocabulary- Selecting Words to Teach - NSW Centre for Effective ...
(Tier 2). More complex, frequently occurring words in academic settings. compare ... sophisticatedlanguage users. Content-specific words. (Tier 3). Highly specialised words that are ... words that are not in students' background knowledge.

[PDF]Expediting Reading2 - Danville Public Schools
peers using tier 3 vocabulary in their discussions. ... English language learners (ELLs) are learning. English at the same ... continuously; associate new readings with prior knowledge; add new ...ACADEMIC VOCABULARY MASTERY. Oracy. Reading ... Tier 2 words can also include polysemouswords across academic ...

[PDF]Vocabulary Instruction for English Language Learners - The School ...
associated with literacy and academic ... May apply knowledge of cognates ... Tier Two: • part of a mature language-user's repertoire. • words that appear in written ... Children interact with examples. Thumbs up, Thumbs down game. 1. 2. 3. 4 ...
\
[PDF]Building English Language Learners' Academic Vocabulary - Eric
Tier 3 which is content specific vo- ... report that low academic language skills are ... Tier 2: GeneralAcademic and Multiple Meaning Words u important to ..

EFFECTIVE and STRATEGIC NOTE TAKING 

[PDF]10-24-7 Cornell Note-Taking Strategies - Alvin ISD
CORNELL NOTE REPETITION STRATEGIES. MINUTES -‐ HOURS -‐ DAYS. ◊ Number Chunks. ◊ Circle Key vocabulary words. ◊ Highlight main ideas.

[PDF]Cornell Note-Taking Rubric with 10-24-7 - Alvin ISD
Cornell Notes Rubric (using the Cornell Way). PART 1: NOTE-TAKING. Create. Format. O Notes are set up in the Cornell Way (name, class/period, date, topic).


[PDF]Model Cornell Notes Steps 1-2
strategies for taking Cornell notes ... How do ELCR students use Cornell notes to record, revise, question, review, and summarize ... 10-24-7 model.

[PDF]10 Steps of the CORNELL WAY
Step 1: CREATE Cornell notes format and complete heading ... Within 24 hours of having taken thenotes, revise these notes, generate questions and use ...

[PDF]Effective Listening and Notetaking - North Shore Community College
Be prepared to listen by keeping up to date with your textbook reading. ... Many students take notes in a very haphazard style claiming that they will copy them ...

[PDF]taking notes - Stanford University
Do I streamline using abbreviations and shortcuts? ... Taking notes helps you to concentrate in class. 5. .... This format can be most effective when your.

[PDF]note taking - University of Manitoba
Taking Useful Class. Notes. Academic Learning Centre. 201 Tier. 480-1481 ... How to Take Notes? ....note-taking: A strategy for effective use of Webnotes.

[PDF]Effective Note-taking: the basics
This workshop will provide some guidelines for taking effective notes in lectures and ... Active listening and reading means that you are doing something with the.

[PDF]Lecture listening and note-taking: developing an efficient approach
developing an efficient approach .... Try a note-taking method you don't normally use. ... 6 general 'macrostrategies' for successful listening:.

[PDF]10 Quick Tips for Effective Note Taking
Getting the most out of college means studying hard and using your time in class wisely. Make the most of your time in class and out with an effective note- taking ...

[PDF]Effective Reading and Note taking Strategies, Final2
Use a dictionary of the book glossary to ... Reading and note-taking strategies are essential for each college course. Review ... organize course materials, target your needs as a learner, and more effectively utilize study time.

[PDF]FIVE NOTETAKING METHODS
 Here are 5 methods that are proven to be successful. Read over each ... These styles are described in the format you would use to take notes in class. ... This allows you to take notes on the right-hand side of the page leaving.

[PDF]Note Taking Will Make You a Better Student - Rust College
This information provides students with the information needed to organize their study time moreeffectively. Taking Good Notes. Most students fail to take notes ...

[PDF]Take Effective Class Notes: Strategic Note-Taking - Intervention Central
Students who lack an efficient strategy for note-taking can miss important lecture information, fail to make meaningful connections between facts and ideas being ...

[PDF]Note Taking Strategies
headings. 0 Read the first and last paragraphs of each section. 0 Also read the first and last sentence of each paragraph. 0 Write down anything you need to ...

[PDF]strategic note taking for middle-school students ... - Semantic Scholar
strategic note-taking, students in the experimental group were taught to record notes independently while viewing a videotaped science lecture. Students who ...

[PDF]Note-Taking Strategy
Note-Taking Strategy. TN. 23. Notes are a brief record of important information, facts, or thoughts written to help you remember what you have read or heard.

[PDF]Effective Listening and Notetaking - North Shore Community College
Efficient notetaking is necessary for students to have a record of lectures for future study and review. This packet gives a variety of techniques to improve notetaking skills ..... Sherman, Thomas M., and Wildman, Terry M. Proven Strategies.

[PDF]Effective Note-taking: the basics
This workshop will provide some guidelines for taking effective notes in ... reading, give you an opportunity to explore some strategies for taking traditional notes,.

[PDF]Effective Note Taking Strategies
Taking notes aids your comprehension and retention. Researchers found that if important information was contained in notes, it had a 34% chance of being ...

[PDF]note taking 101 - Eastern Florida State College
Taking , Reading College Textbooks, TABE English, TABE Math, Test Taking Strategies,. Time/Stress Management. VPI students seeking additional information ...

[PDF]Take Effective Class Notes: Strategic Note-Taking - Intervention Central
Strategic note-taking (Boyle, 2013) primes students to more fully understand lecture content through activating prior knowledge of the topic, monitoring teacher cues that mark key points to be included innotes, recording novel vocabulary items, and pondering interconnections between lecture points. Materials.

Cooperative and Collaborative Reading Skills
Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR): Is a Cooperative and Collaborative Reading Comprehension Strategy and Instructional Model designed to develop deeper academic content knowledge and enhance reading comprehension in students. Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) is a top strategy for teaching reading comprehension when paired with complex and demanding texts.




[PDF]Teaching Young Readers to use Reading Comprehension Strategies
Readers: Collaborative Strategic Reading. READing ... Collaborative Strategic Reading, a model for teaching reading .... CSR was primarily designed to be used with expository text. .... Put the definitionback in the sentence to be sure it.

[PDF]Collaborative Strategic Reading - National Center on Secondary ...
Collaborative Strategic Reading is an approach that works well in mixed-ability classrooms and helps students improve their reading comprehension. CSR can be implemented in a subject-area classroom, such as science or social studies, to improve student comprehension of expository text.

[PDF]The Impact of Collaborative Strategic Reading on the Reading ...
Strategic Reading on the Reading Comprehension of Grade 5 Students in ... Dr. Joseph Dimino is a coauthor of Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR), the ...

[PDF]CSR - Collaborative Strategic Reading - The Meadows Center for ...
CSR. Collaborative Strategic Reading. 4. Dr. Sharon Vaughn. Dr. Michael Solis. The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk. The University of Texas ...

[PDF]Collaborative Strategic Reading - Amazon S3
Reading? Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) is a peer-mediated reading comprehension ...Collaborative Strategic Reading was developed to improve reading comprehension skills for students with ..... ..

[PDF]Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) - International Journal of ...
Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) within Cognitive and Metacognitive. Strategies ..... Reading matrix.com/articles/asraf ahm ad/article/pdf.

[PDF]Using Collaborative Strategic Reading - CiteSeerX
CSR [Collaborative. Strategic Reading] is an excellent tech- nique for teaching students readingcomprehension and building vocabulary and also working ...

Reciprocal Teaching: Reading Comprehension Strategy

Reciprocal Teaching: A Collaborative Jigsaw that Builds Reading Comprehension Skills and Strategies. Students teaching students highly effective reading comprehension strategies, Questioning, Clarifying, Summarizing, Illustrating, and Predicting. Reciprocal Teaching Purpose. Reciprocal teaching is an instructional strategy (peer to peer or teacher to students) used to build close reading skills and reading comprehension strategies of both informational and narrative text.



[PDF]Reciprocal Teaching - NBSS
Reciprocal Teaching (Palinscar & Brown 1984) is a guided reading comprehension strategy that encourages students to develop the skills that effective readers ...

[PDF]Reciprocal teaching - Department of Education and Training Victoria
Reciprocal teaching is an interactive teaching strategy for supporting readers to develop comprehension strategies. It is particularly useful for ESL students who ...

[PDF]Reciprocal Teaching - Reading Rockets
Reciprocal Teaching Worksheet. Prediction: Before you begin to read the selection, look at the title or cover, scan the pages to read ...

[PDF]Reciprocal Teaching - UC Davis Extension
Reciprocal Teaching. Purpose. Reciprocal teaching is an instructional strategy used to build reading comprehension of both informational and narrative text ...

[PDF]Reciprocal Teaching Session - Curriculum Services Canada
This general session format provides you with a starting point to introduce Reciprocal Teaching (RT) to your class. Materials. Choose a well-structured text for ...

[PDF]Reciprocal Teaching: Critical Reflection on Practice - Eric
reciprocal teaching as an evidence-based practice is also examined ... Reciprocal teaching is an instructional practice ......

[PDF]Reciprocal Teaching and Comprehension - Eric
The purpose of this study was to investigate how reciprocal teaching affected vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension in four at-risk students in a ...

[PDF]Reciprocal Teaching - College of Education - Illinois State
Reciprocal Teaching (Palinscar & Brown 1984) is a guided reading comprehension strategy that encourages students to develop the skills that effective readers ...

[PDF]Reciprocal teaching - Basic Knowledge 101
Reciprocal teaching is an instructional activity that takes the form ... the processes involved withreciprocal teaching (Stricklin,. 2011). ..... TAReflectionsMaas.pdf.

[PDF]Reciprocal Teaching: Powerful Hands-on Comprehension Strategy
reciprocal teaching (Palinscar & Brown, 1986), a research-based ... reciprocal teaching as well as struggling readers. Here are .... %20 Standards.pdf. Oczkus ...

[PDF]Reciprocal Teaching: A Reading Comprehension Package
Reciprocal Teaching: A Reading. Comprehension Package. Description: The intervention package teaches students to use reading comprehension strategies ...

[PDF]The effectiveness of the methods of reciprocal teaching
Abstract. Reciprocal teaching (RT) is a process involving four distinct activities (questioning, clarifying, summarising and predicting) employed in a student-led ...

[PDF]Reciprocal Teaching Strategy - Intel
Reciprocal teaching (Palincsar, 1984) is a cooperative grouping strategy that calls on students to become “the teacher” and work as a group to bring meaning to ...

[PDF]Reciprocal Teaching of Comprehension-Fostering and ... - Ucsc
Reciprocal Teaching of Comprehension-. Fostering and Comprehension-. Monitoring Activities. Annemarie Sullivan Palincsar and Ann L. Brown. Center for the ...

Monday, May 28, 2018

5th grade EOG math test

5th grade EOG math test FREE printable PDF 


[PDF]Mathematics Grade 5 - North Carolina Public Schools
North Carolina. READY End-of-Grade. Assessment. Mathematics. Student Booklet. Grade 5. Released Form. REVISED 7/14/2015. RELEASED ...

[PDF]North Carolina End-of-Grade Tests—Grade 5 RELEASED
North Carolina Test of Mathematics. Grade 5 Form S RELEASED Fall 2009. Page 1. Go to next page. 1. What type of angle is ...

[PDF]Grade 5 Math Practice Test - Louisiana Believes
When printing the PDF files for the three Math Sessions, be sure to set the Page ... actual grade 5 math assessment is like. ... iLEAP Practice Test—Grade 5 Math.

[PDF]grade 5 mathematics - Virginia Department of Education
VIRGINIA STANDARDS OF LEARNING. Spring 2010 Released Test. GRADE 5. MATHEMATICS. Form M0110, CORE 1. Property of the Virginia Department of ...

[PDF]mathematics grade 5 - Virginia Department of Education
Mathematics Standards of Learning. GRADE 5. Page 2. Items 1 through 16 are in the non-calculator section of the test. Items 17 ...

[PDF]5th Grade EOG Test Prep Materials - K12.com
5th Grade. EOG Test Prep. Materials. For the complete Georgia Milestones Assessment Guide for this grade level, go to the GA DOE Website at gadoe.org and search for the EOG Assessment Guides – choose your grade level. ... /Documents/GM%20Grade%205%20EOG%20Assessment%20Guide.pdf ... 43. Math. Part A: ...

[PDF]Grade 5 Mathematics Released Items, MCAS 2016
grade 5 Mathematics test was made up of two separate test ... Mathematics testresults are reported under five MCAS reporting categories, ...

[PDF]2017 Grade 5 Math Released Questions - EngageNY
New York State administered the Mathematics Common Core Tests in ... Grades 3-8 Common Core English Language Arts and Mathematics test materials for review, discussion, and use. For 2017 ...procedure and conceptual understanding.


PDF]Grade 5 Mathematics Practice Test - Nebraska Department of Education
Directions: On the following pages are multiple-choice questions for the Grade 5 Practice. Test, a practice opportunity for the Nebraska State Accountability– ...

[PDF]2008 CST Released Test Questions, Grade 5 Mathematics - STAR ...
The following released test questions are taken from the Grade 5 Mathematics StandardsTest. This test is one of the California Standards Tests ...

[PDF]Mathematics Sample Test Grade 5 2010-2013 - Oregon Department of ...
SAMPLE TEST. GRADE 5. 2007 Oregon Content Standards. Grades 3 - 8 ... originally written to align to the 2002 Oregon Mathematics Grade-level Contnet ...

Paper-Based Practice Test Materials - FSA Portal
Directions handhouts and associated scripts for test item practice sessions, which ... Grade 4 FSA ELA Writing Paper-Based Practice Test[pdf]; Grade 5 FSA ELA ...

[PDF]End-of-the-Year Test - Grade 5 - Math Mammoth
it into 3-5 parts and administer them on consecutive days, or perhaps in a ... gain a minimum score of 80% on this test, and that the teacher or parent review with ...

[PDF]Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools 2012-2013 End-of-Year Assessment ...
- calculation. MATH. 2009 through 2012. 2013. 5th Grade Example. 4. 3 ... .org/docs/accountability/testing/eog/reading/g5fiction4955set1.pdf.

[PDF]Review EOG Sample Tests for 3 -5 Graders - wcpss
 EOG Sample Tests for 3 rd. -5 th. Graders: 3rd Grade ELA http://www.ncpublicschools.org/docs/accountability/testing/releasedforms/g3elapp.pdf. 3rd Grade Math.

Friday, May 11, 2018

CLOSE READING STRATEGIES on TEST

CLOSE READING STRATEGIES on TEST

Can Teaching Students Close, Critical, or Analytical Reading Strategies help Students Pass Difficult Reading Test? What are the Real Effects and Results of Close Reading on Reading Comprehension Tests?  

Analysis of reading passages starts with strategies. 

1. What does the title tell you? Is this a persuasive text, expository text, narrative text, or technical text?

2. Skim the text and label/annotate the headings, titles, subheadings, pictures, diagrams, captions, and any text features. 

3. Read the text closely and annotate each paragraph seeking the main ideas, themes, mood, tone, points of view...Annotate in the margins and take notes. Read the first and last sentence of each paragraph and find the main ideas. 

4. Read the question carefully and circle 1 or 2 keywords/clues in the questions and one keyword/clue in each of the multiple choice questions or distractor choices. 

5. Skim the text and find the exact text or passage that supports your first answer choice or conclusion. 

6. Investigate and eliminate the 2 or 3 distractors or DECEIVERS with the same close reading strategies. Distractors are designed to fool the passive reader. 

7. Annotate and X-OUT the distractors, why are they wrong and what is your proof/evidence?

8. Find and prove your answer using text evidence and circle the correct answer and highlight it!

[PDF]Close Reading Guide 
All ELA standards that are measured on the GED® RLA test focus on three key shifts or ... The strategies and skills embedded in the standards are essential for the GED ... order to understand the importance of close reading and what it looks like. ..... PDF) provides examples of how a student may annotate informational texts ...

[PDF]A Close Look at Close Reading (PDF)
Close reading is thoughtful, critical analysis of a text that focuses on significant details or patterns in ...Close read-worthy texts include enough complex ideas worthy of exploring and discussing to sustain one or .... Think-Pair-Share to check u.


[PDF]Close Reading - NH Adult Education
three pieces of text from the HiSet Language Arts Reading Practice Test are located on ... Context Clues: Giving students strategies to use to find the hints that.


[PDF]Close Reading, Vocabulary, and Text Dependent Questions
Three Key Strategies to. Implement ... What does Close Reading Look Like in ... •Text to Itself. •Text to Text- Needed for NYS. Exam. •Text to World- Real Goal ...

[PDF]A Closer Look at Close Reading - GCPS
the words we encounter when reading. For exam- ple, a small amount of re- search might be ... Close reading is not a new strategy for Gwinnett County students.


[PDF]Literary Passages: Close Reading - SIIA.net
text marking is to help students internalize an effective close-reading strategy, not .... Check that students understand how to mark the text using the various icons.


[PDF]Teaching Through Close Reading: Historical and ... - America in Class
meet state testing issues? ➢ I would like to learn more about techniques for active reading. ➢ What arestrategies to effectively break up long readings to ...


[PDF]How Close Reading Influences Reading Comprehension by Laura ...
that students used close reading strategies to make meaning out of the text and used ...... Previously, students took the Arizona Instrument to Measure Standards test, or the AIMS ...... More than one methodological procedure can be applied to.


PDF]Close Reading - NH Adult Education
Close Reading in the classroom: videos at different grade levels a. 4th grade: ... Context Clues: Giving students strategies to use to find the hints that authors use to ... Literacy activities and reading comprehension resources designed for ...


[PDF]How Close is Close Reading? - Texas Association for Literacy Education
Close Reading is a strategy that can be used to understand challenging text (Boyles, ... to incorporate close Reading strategies and activities into the daily lessons. ..... http://www.corestandards.org/assets/Publishers_Criteria_for_3-12.pdf.

[PDF]close reading strategies - Bureau of Education & Research
Close reading strategies that address text complexity and how it changes the ... h Sample lesson plans for close reading fiction, informational text and poetry to ...

[PDF]A Close Look at Close Reading (PDF)
Diving right into the text with limited pre-reading activities ... Close read-worthy texts include enough complex ideas worthy of exploring and discussing to.


[PDF]CLOSE READING EXAMPLES FOR SOCIAL STUDIES
lessons. Without exception, teachers noted that ample time provided for students to talk with ... literacy strategies that complement the close reading method.


[PDF]CLOSE AND CRITICAL READING
Select text worthy of close reading, and study the text to plan the lesson. 2. Make close ... Circling specific items is also an effective close reading strategy.


[PDF]Four Lessons for Introducing the Fundamental Steps of Close Reading
Reading strategies involved in the fourth reading include making text connections, ... Here are four lessons that gradually introduce students to close reading.


[PDF]Close Reading in the Common Core Classroom - Framingham State ...
Participants will compare close reading strategies by viewing various sample lessons ... Participants will develop two close reading lesson plans that align with the .... .americanreading.com/documents/close-reading-in-elementary-schools.pdf.

Sunday, May 6, 2018

How to Raise PARCC MATH Test Scores

Raise PARCC Math Score | How to Pass PARCC MATH Test Scores

Learn how to raise your students PARCC Math test scores and pass the PARCC math test using RIT leveled Math vocabulary and Math practice!  

Getting higher scores on the PARCC Math Test in as few as 20 days! Students that study, model, and learn the Tier 3 academic math vocabulary concepts will score 50  to 200 points higher than students that are not exposed daily to the Math vocabulary concepts. That can be the difference between getting a score of 2 or approaches the standard, to a score of three exceeding the standard.

The Tennessee Academic Vocabulary Project GREAT MATH Vocabulary for Test Prep
NWEA MATH TEST SAMPLES
NWEA MATH TEST WORDS BY RIT LEVEL
Reading Test Sample Problems.pdf NWEA
Language Test Sample Problems.pdf NWEA
Math Sample Problems.pdf NWEA
Science Sample Problems.pdf NWEA                                                                                            Spiraling Math Models To Boost Numbers and Operations a Weekly Review
Top Ten Math Websites For Kids!

Academic Tier 3 Mathematics Glossary
PDF  Word

CCSS Math Games Grade 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 | Free Printable CCSS Math Games | Dice and Card Games to Practice Math Facts | Teaching Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Division Math Facts to Kids With Games, Cards, and Dice!

Use the Free Printable CCSS Math Games Grade 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8
  1. Dice and Card Games to Practice Math Facts
  2. I Have Who Has: Place Value Game
  3. Fraction Playing Cards - Free Download
  4. Making Math More Fun Card Games
  5. Pencil and Paper Math Games
  6. Math Games for the Classroom Grade 6-8
  7. Family Math Night Games
  8. The Game of Pig Subtraction (Grades 3–8) 
  9. Math Games For Skills and Concepts
  10. Four Strikes and You’re Out
  11. Acing Math (One Deck At A Time!): A Collection of Math Games
  12. “Fraction Feud” Card Games
  13. MEGA-FUN FRACTIONS
  14. Fraction Flip Fraction Multiplication of Division
  15. Fifth Grade Math Card Games
  16. Equivalent Fractions and Comparing Fractions: Are You My Equal?
  17. Stuffed with Pizza
  18. Rock Paper Scissors Math
  19. Fraction War Flash Cards
  20. KWL Chart: Pre Game Play
  21. Word Worth How much are your spelling words worth? 


















Grade 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 Daily Math Review and MAP Test
Prep Worksheets! Math skills are learned best when practiced in a spiraling distribution over time. Daily math review that is embedded with performance task that range from simple to advanced exposes students to ideas that need to reinforced and exposure to a variety of math tasks that must be mastered in the future. Use the daily math reviews to help advanced students or struggling students accelerate learning. 1000's of Math Grade Level Math Problems! 

Grade 1 Daily Math Review and Grade 1 Test Prep Review

Grade 2 Daily Math Review and Grade 2 Test Prep Review
Grade 3 Daily Math Review and Grade 3 Test Prep Review
Grade 4 Daily Math Review and Grade 4 Test Prep Review
Grade 5 Daily Math Review and Grade 5 Test Prep Review
Grade 6 Daily Math Review and Grade 6 Test Prep Review
Grade 7 Daily Math Review and Grade 7 Test Prep Review
Grade 8 Daily Math Review and Grade 8 Test Prep Review 

A spiraling math curriculum is a highly effective brain based learning model. The math concepts and comutational skills are practiced daily and weekly throughout the school year. Each math lesson increases in complexity and difficulty, each exposure reinforces the previous learning. 

Below is a sample of my spiraling weekly 4-6th grade math boxes for computational skills review. Teaching a concept for two weeks and moving on makes no senses. Daily and weekly review of foundation math skills will help develop students numeracy.  











Saturday, May 5, 2018

Emotional Resilience and Mental Toughness

10 Ways to Boost Your Students' Emotional Resilience: Help Students Overcome Stress, Strife, and Setbacks.


Why everyone needs a Swim Buddy. Every Navy Seal starts with a Swim Buddy on day one of their BUD/S training. "No one can ever achieve greatness alone." is a simple fact every Navy Seal knows. We all need non-judgemental, helpful, and genuine support when we are faced with struggles and challenges! You need someone by your side pushing you to go farther, raising you up, helping you to get the tough jobs done, especially when you want to tap out, a Swim Buddy demands you up your game. Quitting or not trying is never an option when you have a real Swim Buddy by your side. Every teacher and ALL students need a Swim Buddy on their first day of class and every day after that. Struggling students need multiple swim buddies that will dig deep to lift them up and restore hope.

1) A Positive Attitude, Gratefulness, and Optimism

Positive Thinking: Optimism, Gratitude, Happiness, and Resilience are nice platitudes if they are not turned into a daily habit and your mission to happiness. The real question is how do you grow a positive attitude when the world feels like it is raining down on you?

  • Write down positive thoughts and affirmations daily. The brain loves to focus on the negative. writing and reading about Optimism, Gratitude, Happiness, and Resilience will help students shut out some of that negativity and replace it with optimism. 
  • Stay positive in your speech, thoughts, and your outlook. No excuses, no whining, and no complaining.  
  • You can't think your way to Emotional Resilience and Mental Toughness, you'll have to do your way there with daily task and deeds. Connect your heart and mind through daily positive actions is the first step. A daily meme or positive quote won't get you there either. 
  • Have multiple plans of action, A, B, and C, multiple paths with incremental tasks spelled out, expect adversity, demand change from yourself, acknowledge your growth, forgive yourself when you fail, and stay clear of negative people. And when or if you fail, fail forward. 
“See if you can catch yourself complaining, in either speech or thought, about a situation you find yourself in, what other people do or say, your surroundings, your life situation, even the weather. To complain is always nonacceptance of what is. It invariably carries an unconscious negative charge. When you complain, you make yourself into a victim. When you speak out, you are in your power. So change the situation by taking action or by speaking out if necessary or possible; leave the situation or accept it. All else is madness.”― Eckhart Tolle
#2) Find your Mission, Find your Purpose, and Find your Passion
How do you become an expert at something you love or find a future calling you may eventually love to do. Being skeptical is easy when it feels like you are failing at everything you try. The hard truth is the pursuit of purpose and passion takes daily practice, heart, resolve, risk, and willingness to try, try, try, and try again. You may never know what you love or have a passion for until you practice and gain some success in the endeavor.
  • STOP and turn off the electronic distractions. Technology and screen time is sapping our passion, creativity, focus, and purpose in life.
  • Schedule curiosity time and set aside time for passion projects.
  • Try everything at least once that you have a deep passion for and take time to master those things you may find difficult but have a new found curiosity about. Everyone wants to have passion and purpose in life, but many people are not willing to put the time in and practice it takes to make it happen.
  • Get out of your head and the endless negative thoughts it wants to generate and take positive fruitful action daily. You can't wish your way into finding passion and purpose; you have schedule passion time, you have to envision it and do your way into purpose-filled life.
  • Let Your Heart Rule Over Your Head. Your mind wants you to believe the endless stream of doubt, fear, and negative thoughts are logical and protective, they are sapping your passion and success.
  • Curiosity + Heart + Vision + Passion + Daily Passion Projects/Missions = Passion-Filled Life.
  • A life without passion and purpose turns into a life of lies and regret. 

Every great dream begins with a dreamer. Always remember, you have within you the strength, the patience, and the passion to reach for the stars to change the world. Harriet Tubman
3) Set SMART Micro Goals Daily

4) Do the Hard Missions First “Conquer Your Fears and Doubts with Micro Goals”

5) Find your Mentors be a Mentor "Swim Buddy”

6) Seek Out Motivational and Inspirational Role Models in Books, Podcasts, YouTube, and in Life!

7) Daily Physical Training and Mental Training

8) Live a Life of Integrity and Honor “State your Principles"

9) Developing Emotion Resilience is NEVERENDING, Always Train and Always Set New Micro Goals

10) Practice Mindfulness