Monday, October 17, 2016

Multi-sensory Spelling Multisensory Word Work

Multisensory Spelling “VKAT-V” (Visual, Kinesthetic, Auditory, Tactile, and Vestibular)

HOW TO PASS ANY SPELLING OR VOCABULARY TEST with zero stress, plus build working memory at the same time! Win Win! 

All “VKAT-V” ELA activities are done standing up, to enhance

student engagement and to trigger Vestibular balance which can enhance and deepen learning. Instructional Grouping and setting in the Classroom is critical to student success. Student always work in cooperative groups standing face to face so they can teach and repeat all instructional materials using a think pair share model and or a call and respond model.
  1. Say the” vocabulary” word
  2. Spell the “vocabulary” word (taction and voiced)
  3. Chunk the “syllables” word (phonetic and mnemonic memory devices can be expanded on)
  4. Count the letters
  5. Use the word (visual gestures and dramatic or emotional articulations are required)

Multisensory Vocabulary “VKAT-V“ Word-Work (Visual, Kinesthetic, Auditory, Tactile, and Vestibular)

Part ONE! Students take turns asking and answering. 

  1. Ask the question: What is the denotation and connotation of the term … (gestures and dramatic emotional articulations are suggested) 
  2. Answer the question: The primary meaning or denotation of the term…, is…., a possible connotation of the term is… (visual gestures and dramatic or emotional articulations are suggested) 
Part TWO!
  1. Ask the question: Please give me a contextual exemplar or the terms common usage… (gestures and dramatic or emotional articulations are suggested) 
  2. Answer the question: An excellent contextual exemplar of the term is … , a secondary contextual exemplar might be… … (answer the question, visual gestures, and dramatic or emotional articulations are suggested) 
Part Three!
  1. Ask the question: Please give me an important detail or attribute that is associated with the term … (visual gestures and dramatic or emotional articulations are suggested) 
  2. Answer the question: An important or critical detail of the term is … , a secondary trait of the term would be… (visual gestures and dramatic or emotional articulations are suggested)

  3. The vestibular system includes the parts of the inner ear and brain that help control balance and eye movements!

Friday, October 14, 2016

Games for Autistic Children and Adults

Can Games Improve Autistic Children and Adults Executive Functioning Skills and Theory of Mind?

Executive functions are a set of critical cognitive processes – including learning positive behaviors, attentional control, cooperation, self-control (inhibitory control), working memory, and cognitive flexibility, as well as reasoning, problem-solving, and planning – that are necessary for the cognitive control of social-emotional behaviors. Executive functions gradually develop and change across the lifespan of an individual and can be improved at any time over the course of a person's life. Similarly, these cognitive processes can be modified, improved and affected by a variety of activities including playing board games which affect an individual quality of life.

     Theory of mind (often abbreviated ToM) is the ability to attribute cognitive states— perspectives, beliefs, intents, desires, empathy, knowledge, etc.—to oneself and others and to understand that others have beliefs, desires, intentions, and perspectives that are different from one's own. Deficits can occur in people with autism spectrum disorders and can impact the quality of social interactions in a family. By playing games that require cooperation, taking turns, planning, sharing, and patience, many social skills related to ToM are improved. 

by Successful Kids

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Wednesday, October 12, 2016

"The Chaos" a by poem Gerard Nolst Trenité

"The Chaos" is a poem demonstrating the irregularity of English spelling and pronunciation. Written by Dutch writer, traveller, and teacher Gerard Nolst Trenité(1870–1946), it includes about 800 examples of irregular spelling. The first version of 146 lines of text appeared in an appendix to the author's 1920 textbook Drop Your Foreign Accent: engelsche uitspraakoefeningen, but "the most complete and authoritative version ever likely to emerge", published by The Spelling Society in 1992–93, has 274 lines

Dearest creature in creation,
Study English pronunciation.
I will teach you in my verse
Sounds like corpse, corps, horse, and worse.
I will keep you, Susy, busy,
Make your head with heat grow dizzy.
Tear in eye, your dress will tear.
So shall I! Oh hear my prayer.

Pray, console your loving poet,
Make my coat look new, dear, sew it!
Just compare heart, beard, and heard,
Dies and diet, lord and word,
Sword and sward, retain and Britain.
(Mind the latter, how it's written.)
Made has not the sound of bade,
Say-said, pay-paid, laid, but plaid.

Now I surely will not plague you
With such words as vague and ague.
But be careful how you speak:
Say break and steak, but bleak and streak;
Previous, precious, fuchsia, via; Cloven, oven, how and low,
Script, receipt, show, poem, and toe.

Hear me say, devoid of trickery,
Daughter, laughter, and Terpsichore,
Typhoid, measles, topsails, aisles,
Exiles, similes, and reviles;
Scholar, vicar, and cigar,
Solar, mica, war and far;
One, anemone, Balmoral,
Kitchen, lichen, laundry, laurel;
Gertrude, German, wind and mind,
Scene, Melpomene, mankind.

Billet does not rhyme with ballet,
Bouquet, wallet, mallet, chalet.
Blood and flood are not like food,
Nor is mould like should and would.
Viscous, viscount, load and broad,
Toward, to forward, to reward.
And your pronunciation's OK
When you correctly say croquet,
Rounded, wounded, grieve and sieve,
Friend and fiend, alive and live.

Ivy, privy, famous; clamour
And enamour rhyme with hammer.
River, rival, tomb, bomb, comb,
Doll and roll and some and home.
Stranger does not rhyme with anger,
Neither does devour with clangour.
Souls but foul, haunt but aunt,
Font, front, wont, want, grand, and grant,
Shoes, goes, does. Now first say finger,
And then singer, ginger, linger,
Real, zeal, mauve, gauze, gouge and gauge,
Marriage, foliage, mirage, and age.

Query does not rhyme with very,
Nor does fury sound like bury.
Dost, lost, post and doth, cloth, loth.
Job, nob, bosom, transom, oath.
Though the differences seem little,
We say actual but victual.
Refer does not rhyme with deafer.
Foeffer does, and zephyr, heifer.
Mint, pint, senate and sedate;
Dull, bull, and George ate late.
Scenic, Arabic, Pacific,
Science, conscience, scientific.

Liberty, library, heave and heaven,
Rachel, ache, moustache, eleven.
We say hallowed, but allowed,
People, leopard, towed, but vowed.
Mark the differences, moreover,
Between mover, cover, clover;
Leeches, breeches, wise, precise,
Chalice, but police and lice;
Camel, constable, unstable,
Principle, disciple, label.

Petal, panel, and canal,
Wait, surprise, plait, promise, pal.
Worm and storm, chaise, chaos, chair,
Senator, spectator, mayor.
Tour, but our and succour, four.
Gas, alas, and Arkansas.
Sea, idea, Korea, area,
Psalm, Maria, but malaria.
Youth, south, southern, cleanse and clean.
Doctrine, turpentine, marine.

Compare alien with Italian,
Dandelion and battalion.
Sally with ally, yea, ye,
Eye, I, ay, aye, whey, and key.
Say aver, but ever, fever,
Neither, leisure, skein, deceiver.
Heron, granary, canary.
Crevice and device and aerie.

Face, but preface, not efface.
Phlegm, phlegmatic, ass, glass, bass.
Large, but target, gin, give, verging,
Ought, out, joust and scour, scourging.
Ear, but earn and wear and tear
Do not rhyme with here but ere.
Seven is right, but so is even,
Hyphen, roughen, nephew Stephen,
Monkey, donkey, Turk and jerk,
Ask, grasp, wasp, and cork and work.

Pronunciation—think of Psyche!
Is a paling stout and spikey?
Won't it make you lose your wits,
Writing groats and saying grits?
It's a dark abyss or tunnel:
Strewn with stones, stowed, solace, gunwale,
Islington and Isle of Wight,
Housewife, verdict and indict.

Finally, which rhymes with enough—
Though, through, plough, or dough, or cough?
Hiccough has the sound of cup.
My advice is to give up!

Socratic Seminar: Bushi, Jedi, Seth Code

Socratic Seminar Purpose: What do the Bushi (Samurai), Jedi, and Seth Codes teach us about Virtues? 
  • What are Virtues and what can we learn from cultures that live by a Code of Conduct?
  • How do the Jedi and Bushi codes of conduct compare and contrast with each other?
  • The development of virtues to guild thinking and actions are more important or less important today? 

Socratic Seminars promote thinking, meaning making, and the ability to debate, use evidence, and build on one another’s thinking. When well designed and implemented, the seminar provides an active role for every student, engages students in complex thinking about rich content, and teaches students discussion skills.

One format for the Socratic seminar is as follows: 

Procedure 1. The teacher selects a significant piece of text or collection of short texts related to the current focus of study. This may be an excerpt from a book or an article from a magazine, journal, or newspaper. It might also be a poem, short story, or personal memoir. The text needs to be rich with possibilities for diverse points of view. 

2. The teacher or facilitator develops an open-ended, provocative question as the starting point for the seminar discussion. The question should be worded to elicit differing perspectives and complex thinking. Participants may also generate questions to discuss. 

3. Participants prepare for the seminar by reading the chosen piece of text in an active manner that helps them build background knowledge for participation in the discussion. The completion of the pre-seminar task is the participant’s “ticket” to participate in the seminar. The pre-seminar assignment could easily incorporate work on reading strategies. For example, participants might be asked to read the article in advance and to “text code” by underlining important information, putting questions marks by segments they wonder about, and exclamation points next to parts that surprise them. 

4. Once the seminar begins, all participants should be involved and should make sure others in the group are drawn into the discussion. 

5. The seminar leader begins the discussion with the open-ended question designed to provoke inquiry and diverse perspectives. Inner circle participants may choose to move to a different question if the group agrees, or the facilitator may pose follow-up questions. 

6. The discussion proceeds until the seminar leader calls time. At that time, the group debriefs their process; if using a fishbowl (see below), the outer circle members give their feedback sheets to the inner group participants. 

7. If using a fishbowl, the seminar leader may allow participants in the outer circle to add comments or questions they thought of while the discussion was in progress.

Socratic Seminar: Bushi, Jedi, Seth Code Background Research 

The Sith Code 
The Sith Code, as written by Sorzus Syn[1] and taught by Darth Bane:[2]
  • Peace is a lie, there is only passion.
  • Through passion, I gain strength.
  • Through strength, I gain power.
  • Through power, I gain victory.
  • Through victory, my chains are broken.
  • The Force shall free me.

Jedi Mantra

  • Emotion, yet peace.
  • Ignorance, yet knowledge.
  • Passion, yet serenity.
  • Chaos, yet harmony.
  • Death, yet the Force.

The refined version established by Odan-Urr and transcribed by Homonix Rectonia during the Early Manderon Period was perhaps the best known:

  • There is no emotion, there is peace.
  • There is no ignorance, there is knowledge.
  • There is no passion, there is serenity.
  • (There is no chaos, there is harmony.)(*)
  • There is no death, there is the Force.—
  • The Jedi Code (Based on the meditations of Odan-Urr)

[PDF] What is a Jedi? Extensive 200-page document on warrior code, Bushi (Samurai), Jedi, Seth Code.

[PDF]The Bushido Code: The Eight Virtues of the Samurai - USC US-China ...
The Bushido Code: The Eight Virtues of the Samurai. Tim Clark. A Brief History of the Samurai. The word samurai originally meant “one who serves,” and ...

[PDF]bushido: the soul of japan -
by I NITOBÉ - ‎1904 - ‎Cited by 29 - ‎Related articlesBushido, then, is the code of moral principles which the knights were required or instructed to observe. It is not a written code; at best it consists of a few maxims.

[PDF]Bushido (Chivalry) and the Traditional Japanese Moral Education
by N Sonda - ‎2007 - ‎Cited by 6 - ‎Related articlesthe revival of such traditional values and thoughts; Bushido seemed to be an ... Bushido is not just acode of ethics for samurai warriors but rather a moral.

Monday, October 3, 2016

Free printable scrabble letters for word games

Free printable classroom scrabble letters for word games!

[PDF]Bananagrams Game Instructions (game available at www.morselmunk ...
Bananagrams Game Instructions (game available at ... IMPORTANT: Words can be horizontal or vertical, going from left to right or top to ...

[PDF]The addictive word game enjoyed by millions just got ... - Bananagrams
The addictive word game enjoyed by millions just got WILDER! Included are 6 WILDTILES, putting a spin on the original. BANANAGRAMS game. Ready to go ...

[PDF]Bananagrams rules here - Fun outside games for kids
Mar 5, 2009 - Each player may rearrange his/her own words as often as ... Players then play the regular BANANAGRAMS game, but there is no "peeling".

[PDF]Rules for BANANAGRAMg it...“
connecting and intersecting word grid. Words may be horizontal or vertical, reading left to right or ... Players then play the regular BANANAGRAMS game but there is NO PEELING or. DUMPING. ... letters to spell a type of animal. letters in each ...

[PDF]Appletters Game Instructions (game available at
Appletters Game Instructions (game available at How To Play: The goal of the game is to get rid of all your tiles. As an option to make ...

[PDF]appletters instructions MASTER - Exodus Books


Wednesday, September 21, 2016


Kindergarten, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th , and 5th-grade WHOLE BRAIN TEACHING POWER PIX ELA WORD WALL Vocabulary PDF | POWER PIX ELA VOCABULARY PDF

Power Pix WORD WALLS are the core academic vocabulary used
for multisensory whole brain teaching word work. The Power Pix WORD ELA and Math words are critical words students need to know to thrive academic. The Power Pix is not the complete list of academic vocabulary yet a very good place to start teaching.

PPT]3rd Grade Math Power Pix.ppt

Third Grade Math Power Pix. This document highlights 30 topics specific to 3rd grade Math as defined by the Common Core State Standards. Based on an idea ...

Monday, September 19, 2016



Children use vocabulary stored in their auditory memory to make sense of the words they see and read in print. Readers must understand what they read if they are to develop strong word recognition and automaticity. Explicit vocabulary instruction is needed to build up a rich store of semantic meanings associated with the words, phrases, sentences and text they read.


Tier 1 Academic Vocabulary
Tier 1 vocabulary comprises the basic words commonly appearing in a spoken language — clock, baby, happy and walk for example. These words are often experienced in a variety of contexts, including that of nonverbal communication. Tier 1 vocabulary rarely requires explicit instruction.

Tier 2 Academic Vocabulary
Mature language users across several academic content areas are familiar with the less frequently encountered words in the Tier 2 category. Words such as: obvious, complex, establish and verify. Cognitive verbs are also included in the Tier 2 word category. Because of their lack of redundancy in text, oral language and their multiple meaning or descriptive nature, tier 2 words challenge students who primarily meet them in print and on test. Bloom’s and Webb's DOK cognitive verbs are integral to any successful reading instruction or intervention.

Tier 3 Academic Words
Tier 3 vocabulary consists of infrequently used words. These words are central to building CALPS knowledge and conceptual understanding and should be integral to instruction of content.
Though infrequently used in day to day language, they are common except in various academic domains such as in the disciplines of medicine, law, biology, and mathematics.

Academic Vocabulary K-12



What the Research Tells Us about Vocabulary Instruction in Early Childhood

Educational Leadership:Reading to Learn:Closing the Vocabulary Gap
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Develop...Moreover, teachers face the challenge of identifying which words are most important for their students to learn, especially given the large gap in vocabulary size ...
Language Magazine Closing the Vocabulary Gap - Language Magazine
Why is the socioeconomic achievement gap in part a vocabulary gap? ... Many academic programs rely solely on conversation and reading to teach vocabulary, ...

Closing the reading gap with vocabulary and content | The Thomas B ...
Thomas B. Fordham InstituteDec 12, 2012 - Closing the reading gap with vocabulary and content ... explicit vocabulary instruction can only make a small dent in closing the word gap.

ENHANCE VOCABULARY. DEVELOPMENT IN ... million word gap between children in low income settings ... Syntax. □ Reading Comprehension ...

Vocabulary Development with ELLs | Reading Rockets
Reading RocketsMar 25, 2013 - Using a combination of the following strategies will help ELLs to close the gap. ... You can pre-teach vocabulary by using English as a second ...

10 Ways to Use Technology to Build Vocabulary | Reading Rockets
Reading RocketsThe results of this gap are manifested in students' literacy learning, particularly reading ... Whether directly teaching vocabulary and word learning strategies, ... What is important in this kind of prereading discussion is students' close attention ...

How Can Book Reading Close the Word Gap? Five Key Practices ...
John Wiley & Sons by EK Snell - ‎2015 - ‎Cited by 2 - ‎Related articlesMar 5, 2015 - Vocabulary development is critical for children's ability to learn to read ... reading has long been celebrated as an effective way for teachers to ...

[PDF]K-4 Vocabulary Instruction
Closing the. Reading Gap. Through Explicit. Vocabulary. Instruc;on: Wrapped in. Words. Linda Dorn, PhD.! University of Arkansas at Little Rock! Children with ...

[PDF]Bridging the Vocabulary Gap - National Association for the Education ...
National Association for the Education of Young Child...
by T Christ - ‎Related articleschildhood reading intervention, particularly supporting children's vocabulary acquisition to facilitate ....Teach word-learning strategies while reading aloud.

[PDF]Narrowing the Language Gap - Scholastic
Scholastic Corporation
by K Feldman - ‎Related articlesLanguage Gap: The Case for Explicit ... their overall reading instruction focused on vocabulary. .....Closing the gap: Addressing the vocabulary needs of English ...



Sunday, September 11, 2016


Working memory helps students learn new information, retrieve and remember new information and make connections to background knowledge. Students with poor working memory will struggle learning to read, spell, memorize math facts, follow directions, and actively listen to oral instructions.  

Are your students having difficulty with: 
  • following oral directions
  • memorizing basic spelling words
  • remembering new words
  • learning math facts
  • concentrating on oral presentations
  • renaming words or switching words
  • note taking during lectures 
  • remembering days, months or schedule times























DIRECTIONS:  “Listen carefully as I say some numbers. When I finish, you say them.”

[PDF]How is Working Memory - Brain & Cognitive Sciences
University of RochesterCapacity Measured? • Digit span task -- how many sequential numbers can you remember? • Average is 7±2 (5-9 numbers). • The number of digits you can ...

[PDF]V5-D MESA Digit Span Test (4243
Oct 23, 2009 - Digit Span Test. Date: /. /. Month. Day. Year. Acrostic: Participant Id#: DST (10/23/2009). Page 1 of 2. DIGIT SPAN TEST - - FORWARD.

[PDF]Description of the Instrument - Vanderbilt
Vanderbilt UniversityDigit Span script and list of test items are not included in this manual since these ... Span forward and backward subtest to obtain a copy of the administration ...

Effect of age on forward and backward digit spans (PDF Download ...
ResearchGateDownload Full-text PDF. Effect of age on forward and backward digit spans ... was used to test this hypothesis. the results show no significant effect of age on the ...

[PDF]Cole Gilbert CCHS Audio and Visual Digit Span Test.pdf
Central Catholic High School
by C Gilbert - ‎Related articlesDigit Span Test. • This test was created by J. Jacobs in 1887 to test the memory span of his students. • From then on it has been an important tool in the study of ...

Digit Span Test
Saint Anselm CollegeThe Digit Span test was originally a subtest part of the Wechsler-Adult Intelligence Test. The WAIS-1 was created to evaluate the participants IQ otherwise known ...

Measuring Working Memory With Digit Span and the Letter-Number ...
by J Egeland - ‎2015 - ‎Cited by 5 - ‎Related articlesIn the fourth edition of the test (WAIS-IV), the subtests Digit Span ... higher manipulation load and to consider testing visual span as well before drawing.

[PDF]Improving digit span assessment of short-term verbal memory - EBIRE
by DL Woods - ‎2010 - ‎Cited by 34 - ‎Related articlesINTRODUCTION. Measures of forward and backward digit span (DS) are among the oldest and most widely used neuropsychologi- cal tests of short-term verbal ...

Thursday, September 8, 2016

VKAT Multisensory Learning | Multi-sensory Spelling

Multisensory Spelling and Vocabulary Learning Strategies | Spelling and Reading Made Easy When It's VKAT Multisensory Learning! Visual, Kinesthetic, Auditory and Tactile!

Multisensory integration or multimodal integration is the quickest
way to learn new information and or retain information using the inclusion of all sensory modalities, Visual, Kinesthetic, Auditory and Tactile, and Emotional. Working memory is a core executive function that is critical to classroom learning, it is the cognitive system that is responsible for the transient holding, processing, and manipulation of new information. 

VKAT Learning Strategies Develop: 
  • Working Memory
  • Visual Sequential Memory & Auditory Sequential Memory
  • Verbal Short-Term Memory
  • Accelerated word, vocabulary, and spelling acquisition
  • Listening Comprehension
  • The ability to follow verbal directions 

Paired Students stand up and study, think pair share, gesture, and discuss ELA concepts using VKAT Multisensory Learning Strategies!
  • Student A has list of study words, academic vocabulary, or spelling words: Reading buddy reads the spelling or vocabulary word aloud
  • Student B: listens and repeats the spelling or vocabulary word aloud
  • Student A: divides or breakdowns the syllables in the word 
  • Student B: listens and chunks and says the number of syllables aloud 
  • Student A: air spells the word, or spells word on palm, or on the table while saying the letters and states number of letters in the word
  • Student B: listens and air spells the word on palm, in the air, or on the table or and tactile surface available while saying the letters and states number of letters in the word
  • Student A or B: uses the word in an easy to understand sentence using hand gestures for individual words or ideas and then the reading partner repeats the sentence, contextual exemplar, or definition.          
  • Student A: Learning buddy breaks the word down into phonemes and creates a mnemonic vocabulary or spelling aid! 
  • Student B: listens and breaks the word down into phonemes and creates a mnemonic learning aid! (wed-nes-day, BELIEVE Never believe a lie.)
  • Use your body to act out the words
  • Use pictionary or word improv

Tuesday, September 6, 2016

Dyslexia & Auditory Processing Disorder

Students with reading deficits often have difficulty with short-term
auditory memory, the inability to retain or remember words, letters, phrases and passages that are read or presented orally. Students with dyslexia often have difficulty with short-term verbal memory, they may be unable to remember names, telephone numbers, verbal directions and experience difficulties with reading comprehension activities.  

Are your students having difficulty with: 
  • following oral directions
  • memorizing basic spelling words
  • remembering new words
  • remembering numbers in sequence
  • concentrating on oral presentations
  • renaming words or switching words
  • note taking during lectures 
  • remembering days, months or schedule times
CLASSROOM STRATEGIES that promote self-monitoring of listening skills
  • read aloud and talk, question, reflect on listening skills
  • listen to old radio serials
  • play board games that require following directions
  • play simon says
  • Student read aloud using read to self-phones
  • Read using tape recorders  
  • Teach spelling and reading vocabulary out loud (say the words, the number of syllables in the word, the number of letters in the word and then spell the word in the air as you say the letters)
  • Teacher uses KISS Micro-lectures that keep it simple and short 
  • Students repeat all classroom directions 
  • Total Physical Response (TPR) TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE FOR NEWCOMERS TPR is a well-known beginning ESL method, but TPR-based activities can be adapted and incorporated into mainstream or multi-level classes, particularly in .
  • WHOLE BRAIN TEACHING WBT QuickstartWhole Brain Teaching (WBT), with 50,000 members, outposts in 30 foreign countries and over 2 million YouTube views, is one of the world's fastest growing.

[PDF]Auditory Processing Disorder and Reading Difficulties
... disorder (APD)? Auditory processing disorder (APD) is a sensory processing deficit found to ...Dyslexia is characterized by persistent difficulties in spelling.

[PDF]Recognizing and Treating Children with CAPD - Scientific Learning
Fast ForWordChildren and adults who have central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) ... language learning and contributes to reading disorder and dyslexia—and is well.

[PDF]Central auditory processing disorder is to the ear as dyslexia is to the ...
That's what happens when you have CAPD—central auditory pro- cessing disorder. ... ities such a sdyslexia, developmental language disorder, or attention.

[PDF]Auditory processing and dyslexia: evidence for a specific speech ...
by G Schulte-Körne - ‎1998 - ‎Cited by 307 - ‎Related articlesDyslexia is a specific disability in learning to read and spell in spite of ... and central auditory processing, 19 children with spelling disability and 15 controls at ...

[PDF]Auditory Processing Disorders I: definition, diagnostic ... - Phonak
Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) is a condition in which patients are experiencing listening ... confused with other disorders such as dyslexia, learning disabilities, attention ..... 98AA-3722C 82 4E3/0/v2PS_CAPD.pdf). Bamiou, D. E., Musiek ...

[PDF]Visual and Auditory Processing Impairments in Subtypes of ...
by KI McAnally - ‎Cited by 24 - ‎Related articlesKEY WORDS: visual processing; auditory processing; temporal processing; dyslexia ... ofdyslexia or do they occur only in specific varieties of reading disorder?

[PDF]Children and auditory processing disorder (APD) – information and ...
National Health ServiceSpeech and Language disorder means the child has difficulties ... may cause both APD and dyslexiaor that ... child may have an 'auditory processing disorder'.

Auditory processing disorder (APD), also known as central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), is an umbrella term for a variety of disorders that affect the way the brain processes auditory information. Individuals with APD usually have normal structure and function of the outer, middle and inner ear (peripheral hearing). However, they cannot process the information they hear in the same way as others do, which leads to difficulties in recognizing and interpreting sounds, especially the sounds composing speech. It is thought that these difficulties arise from dysfunction in the central nervous system.