Wednesday, January 11, 2017

Growth Mindset and Stoic Philosophy of Mind

Self Improvement Philosophies - Growth Mindset and Stoicism

"When it comes to success, there are no shortcuts’"― Bo Bennett

“Non est ad astra mollis e terris via" - "There is no easy way from the earth to the stars” ― Seneca

If you stop for a minute and just let these quotes soak in, it can be

extremely powerful. In truth, you have probably heard this before or some variation of the words and this is because it speaks the truth. When it comes to life, there really are no shortcuts and you have to work hard for everything that you earn. Let’s face it, school, career, and life can be extremely tough and there are many hurdles that we have to overcome which is why it is only "the stoic" that make it look easy. Making it to the top for many takes herculean sticktoitiveness! Academic hurdles can stop many people from pursuing advanced education or advanced careers, this impacts future finances, life success, and even lifelong happiness. Americans spend $23 billion a year seeking success and happiness "self-improvement", 1000s of books, DVDs, seminars, and coaching. 

"Your success and happiness lies in you. Resolve to keep happy, and your joy and you shall form an invincible host against difficulties." Helen Keller

Over the years, we have seen many sages and gurus come out and say that they have the definitive guide to business or education success. Of course, many of them were simply attempting to make a quick buck from those who had ambition but didn't quite know how to use it correctly. However, there is one philosophy that has been in existence for 2,000 years and this is something you may not have heard about - stoicism and the modern phycological counterpart, growth mindset. Within this theory, it suggests that the key to lasting happiness and success is adopting the correct mindset or philosophy. However, let’s not take this as a given; let’s delve into exactly why this is true. 

“Difficulties strengthen the mind, as labor does the body.”
― Seneca

Growth Mindset - Currently, there is a buzzword or truism in education - ‘growth mindset’. Whether you are a teacher or a student, this is something you may have heard because it is a philosophy that has attracted a lot of attention. First developed by Carol Dweck, growth mindset is a theory that revolves around self-perception; this means the opinion that one holds about one’s self. For example, do you believe that you are intelligent or unintelligent? Although this is a simple example, there are many others including whether you think you are a good parent, teacher, friend, etc. 

“Luck is what happens when preparation meets opportunity.” ― Seneca

Fixed Mindset - In Dweck’s work, she explains that there are two different types of mindset that one may have - fixed or growth. When someone has a fixed mindset, it suggests that their qualities, such as certain talents or intelligence, are completely fixed. Instead of attempting to develop their skills, people who have this fixed way of thinking prefer to document their intelligence. In most cases, there is also a general belief that effort doesn’t really play a role in success because talent is the key factor. In the classroom, students convince themselves that they are ‘dumb’ or even just slow learners which leads to a shying away from challenges. All things considered, this can be detrimental because when an exam is failed, for example, the student will convince themselves that they just aren't good enough to pass as opposed to revising and taking the test again. 

“Did I win? Did I lose? Those are the wrong questions. The correct question is: Did I make my best effort?” If so, he says, “You may be outscored but you will never lose.”
― Carol S. Dweck, Mindset: The New Psychology of Success

Growth Mindset - On the flip side, Dweck rediscovered the stoic philoshphy "growth mindset" which is where people believe that they can improve their basic abilities "intelligence/skills" as long as they work hard and persist in pursuing their goals in spite of obstacles.  At birth, people are given a starting point in terms of intelligence and people with the growth mindset say that this starting point can be improved over time with great effort, hard work, determination, and a stoic philosophy. When this mindset is in action, it creates a passion for learning because they know that they will reap the rewards. For students with this mindset, there is a belief that perseverance, reflection and revision of beliefs, and working on challenging and difficult academic problems is all worthwhile because it can pay off with deeper skills and knowledge. Rather than saying ‘I’m just not good at algebra’, the student sees struggle and failure as an opportunity to from their mistakes and make faster progress and improve a skill. 

"Education is what survives when what has been learned has been forgotten." ― B. F. Skinner

Education - As we can see, the differentiation between the two mindsets in education is a vital component for success beyond the school years. Just as we said in the beginning, ‘there is no shortcut to success’. Essentially, this means that the students with the fixed mindset are going to get eaten alive in the real world because they don’t believe in self-improvement and development of self is a lost cause.

Although many will say that it is ‘too early’ for someone’s mindset to be altered, the reason why it has made such an impact in schools of late is because people who leave education with a fixed mindset struggle to change later in life. If a student can be encouraged to think about learning with a growth mindset, the affect on their academic improvement will be phenomenal. Suddenly, they will realize that ‘wait, I have to work hard if I really want to achieve!’. 

“It is the power of the mind to be unconquerable.” ― Seneca, The Stoic Philosophy of Seneca: Essays and Letters

For the teachers, it is all about encouragement for students and trying to transform those who have the fixed mindset which can be so damaging. In fact, research has suggested that students achieve better results when they believe that learning and hard work will improve their skills. As well as learning more, there is also an argument for faster learning as well as a more thorough type of learning with this mindset. For many, this doesn’t come as a surprise because it is the key to lasting happiness and success. 

“So what should we say when children complete a task—say, math problems—quickly and perfectly? Should we deny them the praise they have earned? Yes. When this happens, I say, “Whoops. I guess that was too easy. I apologize for wasting your time. Let’s do something you can really learn from!”
― Carol S. Dweck, Mindset: The New Psychology of Success

Teaching the Mindset - At first, there were many challenges for teachers in knowing how this mindset could be taught but there is now sufficient evidence to show that it can be taught intentionally. For example, teachers could openly praise effort in the classroom as opposed to focusing solely on achievement. Rather than saying that a student must be very smart, teachers are now encouraged to praise hard work and effort. 

“After seven experiments with hundreds of children, we had some of the clearest findings I’ve ever seen: Praising children’s intelligence harms their motivation and it harms their performance. How can that be? Don’t children love to be praised? Yes, children love praise. And they especially love to be praised for their intelligence and talent. It really does give them a boost, a special glow—but only for the moment. The minute they hit a snag, their confidence goes out the window and their motivation hits rock bottom. If success means they’re smart, then failure means they’re dumb. That’s the fixed mindset.”
― Carol S. Dweck, Mindset: The New Psychology of Success

Stoicism - As so many self-improvement philosophies do, the growth mindset has a foundation in stoicism. Essentially, stoicism is a term that reflects the learning that takes place through logic and rationalism as opposed to feelings and comfort. Over the years, there has been many misconceptions regarding stoicism and this is because the term is often simplified so far that it becomes inaccurate. For example, many have said that stoicism means that one must reject pleasure but this simply isn't true. According to early Stoics, we will all be fine as long as we align ourselves with logic because everything thereafter will fall into place. 

“Parents think they can hand children permanent confidence—like a gift—by praising their brains and talent. It doesn’t work, and in fact has the opposite effect. It makes children doubt themselves as soon as anything is hard or anything goes wrong. If parents want to give their children a gift, the best thing they can do is to teach their children to love challenges, be intrigued by mistakes, enjoy effort, and keep on learning. That way, their children don’t have to be slaves of praise. They will have a lifelong way to build and repair their own confidence.” ― Carol S. Dweck, Mindset: How You Can Fulfill Your Potential

Embracing Adversity - When it comes to philosophy itself, the topic is also the victim of many misconceptions. For the most part, people believe that it involves men and women sitting around a table questioning life and the aim/purpose of us all. In this false suggestion, philosophy is purely theoretical but there is also a very important practical element that needs to be discussed. When philosophy is used, there is an underlying aim to make our time on Earth that little bit easier and more productive. In some regards, it could be considered an instruction manual for our own lives which has been written and edited by the leaders throughout time.

Of all the philosophical theories, stoicism happens to be one of the most useful because, as we saw earlier, it discusses the idea of aligning one’s self with logic. At the same time, it trusts that we are spending our time focusing on the things that we can change as opposed to the events to which we have no control. Once again, comparisons can be drawn to how there are no shortcuts to success. If success is to be earned, we all have to focus on the events that we can change.

In life, we will all have tricky times to overcome whether it is happening right now or is some years away. No matter how hard you try, there will be adversities that take your full attention but stoicism explains how these obstacles can be overcome before then turning them in our favor. With a growth mindset that has been taught at an early age, this process becomes a whole lot easier.

The Connection - Immediately, you should be able to draw the link between the growth mindset and stoicism because they are very closely related. As stated earlier, the growth mindset comes from stoic foundations because students have to make a decision. Will they take the fixed mindset and decide that they cannot improve their key skills? Or will they realize that there are certain things that we can control and one of these few things is ourselves? On the one hand, there is a focus on controlling the wrong thing but, on the other, there is a stoic mindset in that we can control our own destiny as long as we are willing to spend a little time becoming a more informed person.

In truth, it isn't hard to see why the growth mindset is making waves in education because it promotes a confidence in one’s ability and allows students to make up their own minds regarding their academic choices, career choices, and future path when they see hard work is part of life. If they want to become a scientist and need to improve their math skills, growth mindset tells them that they need to work hard to learn everything that they will need to know rather than deciding that it ‘isn’t for them’ after failing one test. Then, stoicism is needed to overcome failure and push through any adversity that comes their way. If an exam is failed or they are rejected from their dream job after school, they will know exactly how to bounce back.

Summary - In conclusion, we may not have control over external events even if they affect us in the worst ways possible. However, what we do control is how we react. If you happen to fail an exam, job interview, or even in a relationship, you need to react in the right way in order to pick yourself up, dust yourself off, and go again. If we teach the younger generations that the key to lasting happiness and success is the growth mindset, we may just have adults that are happy and successful, whilst willing to put in the hard work, in the future!

Friday, January 6, 2017

Top Multisensory Reading Techniques

How to Teach Reading - Top 10 Multisensory Reading Techniques

Using multisensory reading techniques in your daily reading

instruction will greatly help students with reading and language issues. Students with specific reading disabilities like dyslexia can learn to read faster and with less struggle when using Multisensory Reading Techniques. Here are my top10 examples of multisensory reading techniques teachers can use. 

For some children, reading is just a normal part of growing up and the skill steadily improves over time. For others, it can be a real challenge and this is especially true for those struggling with dyslexia or perhaps even those who have other issues including the simple use of sight, touch, movement, or hearing. In these scenarios, engaging more than one sense can be incredibly useful so multisensory learning techniques are what we will be discussing today!

Word Dance - Take a difficult word that students need to master and create a word dance, a series of gestures and kinesthetic body movements that help students visualize concepts through dramatic gestures. Students can use American Sign Language gestures or create their own gestures. 

Back Writing - As the name suggests, this technique will see students using their fingers to write letters and words on their partners back. They say the sounds as they write letters, phoneme forms, and words. Special care can be used to enforced differentiate between ‘b’ 'p' 'q', and ‘d’ and other common errors. To help even further, students can write the complete word and have students guess the word as part of a game.

Air Writing - As the name also suggests, this technique will see students using their fingers to write letters or words in the air or on a flat surface. Again they say the letters and the sounds as they write the letter forms and or words in the air.

Word Building - Find a set of fridge magnets or a set of scrabble letters, word building exercises can be fantastic for learning. You can make a set of letters and or phonemes to target specific phonics goals. 
Vowels appear in specific clusters within a single word, and building words using the digraphs help students see common patterns. For example, you could have one color for consonants, consonant blends, diphthongs, and another for single vowels, diphthongs, digraphs, and diphthongs. If you add in sounds for each letter, the student will be engaging colors, sounds, phonemes, and letters all together as one concept to build individual words. With physical magnets and scrabble letters, touch will also play a huge role and the shape will be attained easily. 

Sand Writing - After grabbing a tray, lay out some sand and allow the student to write with their fingers. For many, this will keep them engaged whilst using sight, sound, and touch once again to spell words and write letters. With all of these exercises, students will need sound each letter or word as they write and the connection will then be made. In truth, sand could even be replaced with shaving cream or any other similar substance.

Sandpaper - Sometimes, paper just isn't enough to engage the touching element which is where sandpaper can come in and play a pivotal role. Much like magnets, students will get a feel for the letters whilst connecting this to the sound as they talk aloud. Again, different colors can be used and words can be spelled on the table after cutting the letters out.

Broken Telephone - One person whispers a message to the ear of the next person through a line of people until the last player announces the message to the entire group. Although the objective is to pass around the message without it becoming misheard and altered along the way, part of the enjoyment is that, regardless, this usually ends up happening.

Read, Build, Write - Using sight words, magnetic letters, and then a marker, students can follow this process for each word. With three boxes on a piece of paper, the teacher and student can first ‘Read’ the word together. Then, the student can use the magnets to ‘Build’ the word before using the marker to ‘Write’ the word.

Story Sticks - For more advanced practice, story sticks can be a great addition for comprehension. Often, students will struggle to answer questions on a story but what if you were to introduce simple colored sticks? Whilst reading together, the teacher could hand across simple sticks asking questions such as ‘where does the story take place’ or ‘who is the main character’.

Digital Reading - Nowadays, there is a multitude of digital resources available and this includes audio versions of most chapter books as well as printable excerpts of books. Whilst reading in small groups with the teacher is preferred that is not always possible in large classrooms, students can use these to follow the story and share and underline points of interest. 

Chuncking and Tapping - Finally, the tapping system is yet another great technique to test. Taking a simple word like ‘cat’ as an example, the word begins with a harsh ‘c’ sound which will bring their index finger to their thumb. With the short ‘a’ sound, their middle finger can be tapped. To finish, their ring finger can tap the thumb for the ’t’ sound. With this, words will become segmented and easier to understand and remember.

There we have it, ten fantastic techniques that encourage students to use more than one sense which will improve understanding as well as memory recall in the future!

[PDF]Multisensory Activities to Teach Reading Skills - Minnesota Literacy ...
effective it was for teaching reading to young elementary students, especially in ... 

been on usingmulti-sensory techniques to teach reading skills and sight word ...

[PDF]Using MultiSensory Methods in Reading and Literacy ... - Heidi Songs
The use of multisensory approaches to reading and literacy instruction ... also gain 
positive experiences from using multisensory methods with ...

[PDF]Multisensory Classroom Techniques
Using a multisensory teaching approach means helping a child ... looking at diagrams 
or pictures, orreading what is ... Multisensory learning techniques provide.

[PDF]Multi-Sensory Approaches to Teaching Reading - Unlocking Learning ...
developed multi-sensory methods to teach children to read and to achieve in ... website

[PDF]Multisensory Structured Language (MSL) - The International Dyslexia ...
Multisensory teaching is simultaneously visual, auditory, and ... began using 
multisensory techniques in the mid-. 1920's at ... letters while reading and writing.

[PDF]effectiveness of a multisensory, orton-gillingham influenced
specified both the content and strategies used in multisensory structured language.

history of reading is followed by chapter on reading instructions for learning 
disabled pupils. ... successfully through use of multisensory teaching techniques. in ...

[PDF]Using Multisensory Methods In Reading And Literacy PDF ...
... synthetic multisensory phonics in ... by using multisensory methods for 
teaching reading. ... [PDF] structured multisensory techniques in reading and learning .

[PDF]3. Multisensory Teaching Methods: Tutoring Joey
Gillingham (O-G) and other multisensory methods to teach students they believe are ... 
curriculum for Teaching Reading, Writing and Spelling in the Elemen.

Sunday, December 18, 2016


Progress Monitoring IEP, ISP, SST/SAP and RtI Goals and Objectives. 1st Quarter. 2nd Quarter. 3rd Quarter. 4th Quarter.

Ongoing quarterly progress monitoring is the key to helping all students succeed and make great gains! Closing the achievement gap starts with SMART goals and instructional practices that match the learning goals and objectives! Students that struggle academically have gaps in literacy, numeracy, language, word knowledge, and communication. SST/SAP, ISP, IEP, and RtI all rely on quality formative progress monitoring. Educating your staff and parents about progress monitoring procedures and the requirements is the first step in helping students, teachers, and parents succeed.

IEP: The 'Individualized Education Program, also called the IEP, is
a document that is developed for each public school child who needs special education. The IEP is created through a team effort, reviewed periodically. In the United States, this program is known as an Individualized Education Program (IEP).

RtI: Response to Intervention (RTI) is a multi-tier intervention that identifies and supports students with learning and behavior needs.

SST: The Student Success Team (SST) is a problem-solving team that looks for ways to support students and families.

ISP: The Individual Success Plan helps participants remove obstacles and create a clear academic pathway, positively impacting student success.

IDEA Progress Monitoring Procedures

Sharon Hawthorne 515-281-3946
According to IDEA and State Rules, progress monitoring procedures must be established for each goal.
Progress Monitoring is the method of formative assessment used to measure student’s progress toward meeting a goal.  Progress Monitoring procedures guide how data will be collected in order to make instructional decisions about the progress of the student and establish a decision making plan for examining the data collected.
Progress monitoring assists the teacher or service provider in making ongoing instructional decisions about the strategies being used.  It also provides summative evidence that enables the IEP team to determine whether the student has achieved his or her goals.
Monitoring Progress on IEP Goals
Monitoring progress on IEP goals is described on the goal page in the Progress Monitoring Procedures.  It must include the following:
·                 How progress will be measured?
·                 How often progress will be monitored?
·                 When changes in instruction will be considered?
IEP teams need to consider the measure used to determine the baseline performance and the goal criterion.  The measure used for the baseline and goal criterion will determine the measure for progress monitoring.
Baseline – Given a fifth grade level reading passage, George reads the passage and answers 10 comprehension questions with 10% accuracy.
Annual Measurable Goal – In 36 weeks, given a fifth grade level reading passage, George will read the passage and answer 10 comprehension questions with 90% accuracy on three consecutive data collection dates.
Progress Monitoring Procedures – Once a week George will be given a fifth grade level reading passage to read and ten comprehension questions to answer. The classroom teacher will collect and chart the outcome each week. If four consecutive data points fall below the expected growth line changes in instruction will be considered.
How will progress be monitored?
When explaining how progress will be monitored, the IEP team must include an explanation of how the student will be demonstrating skills and knowledge
In the following example of a progress monitoring procedure, the bolded portion states how progress will be monitored:
Once a week George will be given a fifth grade level passage to read and ten comprehension questions to answer. The classroom teacher will collect and chart the outcome each week. If four consecutive data points fall below the expected growth line changes in instruction will be considered.
How often will progress be monitored?
The IEP team must describe how often a student’s progress will be monitored. Monitoring of IEP goals must be done frequently and regularly.
In the following example of a progress monitoring procedure, the bolded passage states how often progress will be monitored:
Once a week George will be given a fifth grade level passage to read and ten comprehension questions to answer. The classroom teacher will collect and chart the outcome each week. If four consecutive data points fall below the expected growth line changes in instruction will be considered.
When will changes in instruction be considered?
The IEP team must include a statement describing when changes in instruction will be considered.
In the following example of a progress monitoring procedure, the bolded passage states when changes in instruction will be considered.

Once a week George will be given a fifth grade level passage to read and ten comprehension questions to answer. The classroom teacher will collect and chart the outcome each week. If four consecutive data points fall below the expected growth line changes in instruction will be considered.
Monitoring Effectiveness of Instruction
Seven to 12 data points are required to make instructional decisions that are statistically valid.  So, in order to have sufficient data points to make a valid instructional decision, data must be collected regularly and frequently.  Behavior data is often collected daily, where academic data is usually collected only once a week.  Anything monitored only monthly would require the whole year in order to make a valid decision.
If progress is monitored daily, effectiveness of instruction may be determined after 2 weeks. (10 data points)
If progress is monitored twice a week, effectiveness of instruction may be determined after 1 month. (8 data points)
If progress is monitored once a week, effectiveness of instruction may be determined within 1 quarter (9 data points).
If progress is monitored quarterly, every 9 weeks, effectiveness of instruction may not be determined, even after a year (4 data points).
Characteristics of Effective Progress Monitoring
·                 Measures the behavior outlined in the goal
·                 Uses an equivalent measure each time
·                 Regular and frequent data collection
·                 Easy to implement
·                 Takes only a short amount of time from instruction
·                 Allows for analysis of performance over time
What methods will be used to collect data?
·                 Student products
·                 Direct observations protocols (rubric, point sheet, etc)
Baseline must be established using the measurement of the student’s performance that you expect by the end of the goal period.  The same measurement using equivalent materials or procedures must be used throughout the monitoring process.
Who will be responsible for the data collection?
Data collection is usually the responsibility of the teacher or direct service provider, however a paraeducator, under the direction of the teacher or service provider, can be trained to collect the data.
Baseline Data
What is baseline data?
Baseline data is stable data that represents the median (middle) score of at least 3 measures.  It is collected in appropriate settings within a relatively short period of time.
Baseline data represents the current level of performance at the beginning of the IEP implementation.  It is the starting point of the goal line on a graph.
Why put data on a graph?
·                 Creates documentation and a visual representation of the student’s learning
·                 Provides an easily understood method of showing progress
·                 Provides information to make decisions regarding the effectiveness of the chosen strategies
·                 Helps predict learning rate

Saturday, December 10, 2016

ppt Building Vocabulary and Language [PPT]

Search Results

Teaching and using rich academic vocabulary in daily lessons increases students language skills, academic achievement, and reading comprehension! Closing the language and word gap is the priority of every teacher that instructs at risk students! Word poverty is the biggest hindrance to school and learning success. Students with limited language and word knowledge will not engage or connect fully with curriculum. Basal reading programs and curriculum will not expose students to academic language at a frequency that students will learn or understand its use and meaning. 

[PPT]Vocabulary: theory, research, and promising practices
Speaking vocabulary; Listening vocabulary; Reading vocabulary; Writing ... new words, thus adding greatly to the number of potential words in the language.

[PPT]Wednesday, June 6th: Vocabulary
5:30-5:45 Academic Vocabulary PowerPoint Presentation ... meanings of words from context is an excellent strategy for learning second language vocabulary. 3.

[PPT]PowerPoint Presentation - Oregon Reading First Center
The presentation will focus on providing teachers with strategies both within their ... Guidelines for ELL Instruction: Vocabulary Development and Oral Language.

[PPT]PowerPoint Presentation - Building Vocabulary
Building Vocabulary. A research-informed, classroom-tested strategy for pre-teaching critical words. The limits of my language are the limits of my mind.

[PPT][.PPT] Vocabulary Building
Oct 5, 2009 - Use the Library to find other resources for building your vocabulary. Bookstores have “Word for Today” calendars, crossword puzzles, and vocabulary word card boxes. 6. USE your words from time to time in conversations.

[PPT]PowerPoint Presentation - Building Vocabulary
Determine critical terms to be explicitly taught. Keep the list short. Teach students meaningful work parts- prefixes, suffixes, and roots (handouts sent). Students must participate actively and accountably in explicit vocabulary instruction to process words more deeply. Reinforce use of vocabulary multiple times.
[PPT]Building Vocabulary ppt
Building Vocabulary. Cindy Gwinn. Staff Development. Fun With Words! The man who recently fell into an upholstery machine is now fully recovered. Dictionary ...
[PPT]Building Vocabulary (Gunning)
Higher-level Texts Use Challenging Vocabulary; Need Increases as Students Progress ... BuildingExperiential Background; Relating Vocabulary to Background ...
Building Vocabulary for Better Literacy. Literacy. Toolkit. Activity 1: Spend 2-3 minutes teaching each other a new word –. Do NOT write your new word down.
Themes or general categories of effective vocabulary instruction ... Present a way for students to interact with the word to initiate building connections to their ...
[PPT]Building Vocabulary
Vocabulary is the body of words known by the speaker of a language. Receptive vocabulary is the word meanings recognized in context. Expressive vocabulary ...
[PPT]Using Academic Vocabulary to Increase Student Achievement
Using Academic Vocabulary Strategies to Increase Student Achievement. Presented by: .... BuildingAcademic Vocabulary Six Step Process for Teaching New ...

native language vs. foreign language;. developing writing skills;; teaching vocabulary. A person's proficiency in a language refers to the degree to which that ...

[PPT]Downloadable PowerPoint - Florida Center for Reading Research
Oral language skills (vocabulary, linguistic comprehension). Extent of conceptual and factual knowledge. Knowledge and skill in use of cognitive strategies to ...

[PPT]PowerPoint Presentation - OWL
An idiom is a group of words that is language specific and that does not ... one of which is about vocabulary and appropriate language in academic writing.

[PPT]Graves on Vocabulary (PPT)
Petty, Herold, and Stoll on the Importance of Vocabulary (1967) ... Language and reading both act as the tools of thought to bring representation to a new level ...

[PPT]Academic Language Webinar - PowerPoint slides ... -
Understanding the Role of Academic Language within Literacy Development and ... Vocab, syntax and discourse are the tools used to accomplish the language ...

Monday, December 5, 2016

Tier 2 Academic Vocabulary Test Vocabulary

Tier 2 Academic “Question” Vocabulary and Phrases Test Analysis for Grade 4 and 5

Students will fail all or most TerraNova, STAAR, SAT, FCAT,
PARCC, SBAC Smarter Balance, and Common Core reading assessment if they do not understand the tier 2 academic vocabulary and phrasing used on reading comprehension test questions! 

This is a quick look at the tier 2 vocabulary found in grade 4 and 5 reading assessment. 

facts, figures ”data”, statement, supports, phrase, detail, demonstrate, suggest, summarizes, function, evidence, structural elements, opposite, react, provides evidence, character trait, quotation, theme[s], explanation, explains, mainly organized, article, structure in the answer, difference between, best describes, understand the meaning, statements describe, main idea, best summary, best supports, events, phrase best describes, main character[s], main theme, article provides evidence, key details, which two sentences, include, author uses evidence, which evidence, narrator’s, contribute, comparison, phrase...mean, overall structure, refer, main difference between, which two details, narrator’s point of view, influence the events, provide overall structure of the passage, two main ideas, which two quotations, select two details, two pieces of evidence, challenge, most influence, narrator’s point of view, statement explains, provides support, expresses the main idea, provides evidence, author used evidence, main reason, narrator’s attitude towards, gradual change, development of the plot, similar way, statement expresses theme, according to the author, central idea, author’s primary purpose, author makes the claim, main strategy, develop the claim, supports the idea, choose a central idea, which piece of evidence, intend to support, best states a theme, which option describes, as it is used, relationship between, author develops … point of view, and emphasize a common central idea.

Saturday, November 19, 2016

5 Strategies to help build memory skills!

Top 5 Way to Power-up Students' Memory! 

Working memory is a critical function of learning new concepts and
making connections to background knowledge, and core executive function related to academic success is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that is responsible for the transient holding, processing, and manipulation of information. Working memory is an important process for reasoning and the guidance of decision-making and behavior.

1. Teach all critical language, vocabulary, and academic concepts using Multisensory methods that repeat and review constantly. Using visual, kinesthetic, auditory, and tactile modalities in fun engaging ways helps the brain's neurons fire together and wire memories together using all learning pathways, each time students are required to remember academic concepts, the brain re-wires its physical brain structure "neuroplasticity" making learning faster, stronger and deeper.

"Neuroplasticity: The brain's ability to reorganize itself by forming new neuralconnections throughout life. Neuroplasticity allows the neurons (nerve cells) in the brain to compensate for injury and disease and to adjust their activities in response to new situations or to changes in their environment."

2. Teach all directions and tasks in small steps and have students repeat all steps with a shoulder partner. Repeat to remember and rehearse and model over and over to strengthen concepts. 

3. Use pictures and physical "pictorial/symbolic" gestures to tap into visual spatial memory neural pathways. 

4. Teach auditory processing and auditory memory as a key element of all academic instruction. Think academic Simon says, listening and following complex oral directions.  Teaching vocabulary, spelling, math facts, poetry recitation, and old schools rote memorization skills using chants, songs, mnemonic devices and part of daily lessons. 

5. Teach students good study habits that include self-quizzing strategies, flash cards, Cornell notes, games with competition, studying over time, creating test questions, summarizing, study buddies, highlighting, close reading, and combine academic content to make connections to background knowledge. 

Student Christmas Craft Ideas! Step by Step Lessons

Fun Christmas Crafts ideas to share with students. Printable PDF Student Christmas Craft Ideas! Step by Student Christmas Craft Ideas! Christmas and winter holidays lend themselves to classroom handicrafts, no bake baking and all those nostalgic and cultural traditions that kids love and cherish. Please share your favorite holiday traditions.

[PDF]Christmas Crafts - Kids Friendly
Christmas lends itself to craft making, baking and all those nostalgic and traditional ... Other Kids Friendly resources for the Christmas season include: A Kids ...

[PDF]Arts & Craft for Christmas - The 12 Do's of Christmas
Arts & Craft for Christmas ... Supplies needed: egg carton, scissors, string, small bells, craft glue, glitter, paint .... Glass jars are great for all types of gift ideas:.

[PDF]A Christmas Activities eBook - Learning 4 Kids
This eBook was released last year in 2011 when Learning4 Kids was still very new and since then we have shared more Christmas crafts and activities on the ...
[PDF]Christmas Ideas -
Paper Plate Christmas Wreath- An easy and fun craft that all kids can make. ....

[PDF]Cheap and Easy Crafts
Find thousands of free craft projects, decorating ideas, handmade gift options and more ..... 15 Homemade Christmas Ornaments: Recycled Paper Ornaments .

[PDF]Cheap & Easy Crafts For Everyone
to library crafts (general, children's, and YA), kids crafts, and crafts in general .... Image from:

[PDF]11 Christmas Crafts for Kids to Create - Free Christmas Crafts
The holiday season is the perfect time to connect with the family. While it's always fun ... your kids about winter and Christmas through crafting. You can find more ...

[PDF]Santa's Guide to Easy Christmas Crafts for Kids - FaveCrafts
Find thousands of free crafts, decorating ideas, handmade gifts and more at www. ... You can find moreChristmas craft ideas, free knitting patterns, craft projects ...

[PDF]40 Newspaper Craft Ideas - Oklahoma Press Association
40 Newspaper Craft Ideas ..... Here is a handy folder you can make to keep all your papers and ideas in one ... Hot glue ribbon, Christmas balls or other acces-.

[PDF]Quick craft ideas - Church News Ireland
In the run up to Christmas there may be times when you need to put craft activities together at the last minute. You can save yourself a lot of stress and panic by ...

( ... Supplies needed: egg carton, scissors, string, small bells, craft glue, glitter, paint .... Some ideas include.
Missing: student

[PDF]Recycled Arts and Crafts Guide (PDF) - Schools... - Schools Recycle ...
We hope that this Guide will spark ideas for teachers and ... recycled craft projects are a good way to reinforce the key messages of ... projects that are suitable for students in preschool and primary ..... paper,Christmas cards. ♻ Hand held ...
[PDF]Cheap & Easy Crafts For Everyone
I love to use Pintrest to find ideas for crafts among other things and .... Hang up. Image from:

Cheap and Easy Crafts
Find thousands of free craft projects, decorating ideas, handmade gift options and more ..... 15 Homemade Christmas Ornaments: Recycled Paper Ornaments .

[PDF]40 Newspaper Craft Ideas - Oklahoma Press Association
40 Newspaper Craft Ideas. Page 1 of 2. 1. ... “out the porthole,” etc. and have the students draw in a ..... Hot glue ribbon, Christmas balls or other acces- stories to ...

[PDF]No Bake Cookies
No Bake Cookies. You Need: . 1 cup cup 1 Tb. + 1 tsp. + " _ sugar peanut butmr 1/2 tsp. cocoa 1/2 tSP- vanlua. 1/4 cup dry 1/2 cup dry 1/2 cup dry measuring ...

[PDF]Chocolate No Bake Cookies.pdf
Chocolate No–Bake Cookies. 1 cup sugar. 1 tsp vanilla. 2 tbsp cocoa powder. 1/4 c. peanut butter. 1/4 c. milk. 1 and 3/4 c. quick oats. 1/4 c. margarine. Mix sugar ...

[PDF]6 Chocolate No-Bake Cookies -
Chocolate No-Bake Cookies. Easy enough for beginning chefs! Level: Easy. Makes: 40. Ingredients: 1 1/2 cups sugar. 6 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa ...

[PDF]no bake cookies - Tufts
NO BAKE COOKIES. Time: 10 min. Ingredients: • 1 ripe banana, mashed well. • 1 cup sugar. • 1/4 cup cocoa powder. • ½ cup non-fat milk. • ½ cup peanut butter.

Wednesday, November 16, 2016

Mysterious Vocabulary Facts? Zipf's Law!

Most common words in English! 

The listed words below account for 50% of all the words use daily in reading, writing, and spoken communication?
What is Zipf's Law? Why are all Languages based in Zipfian principals? What conclusions and connections can you draw between Zipf's Law and the Pareto Principle? Please explain and cite Bics and Calps language development skills in your answers.

DOK Level 1-3 reading vocabulary test question! 

Academic vocabulary instruction is the key to closing the academic achivment gap! 

BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills)[edit]
BICS refers to the basic communicative fluency achieved by all normal native speakers of a language. It is cognitively undemanding and contextual and is better understood as the language used by students in informal settings, say, on a playground or cafe. Research by Cummins as well as Virginia Collier suggest that it typically takes language learners 1–3 years to develop BICS if they have sufficient exposure to the second language.

CALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency/Academic Language Proficiency)[edit]

CALP refers to the ability to manipulate language using abstractions in a sophisticated manner. CALP is used while performing in an academic setting. CALP is the ability to think in and use a language as a tool for learning. Cummins's and Collier's research suggest that K-12 students need 5 to 7 years to acquire CALP in the second language if the learner has native language literacy. Learners who do not have strong native language literacy often need 7–10 years to acquire CALP in the second language.

The Pareto principle (also known as the 80/20 rule, the law of the vital few, or the principle of factor sparsity)[1] states that, for many events, roughly 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes.[2] Management consultant Joseph M. Juran suggested the principle and named it after Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto, who noted the 80/20 connection while at the University of Lausanne in 1896, as published in his first paper, "Cours d'économie politique". Essentially, Pareto showed that approximately 80% of the land in Italy was owned by 20% of the population; Pareto developed the principle by observing that about 20% of the peapods in his garden contained 80% of the peas.[3]

Zipf's law /ˈzɪf/ is an empirical law formulated using mathematical statistics that refers to the fact that many types of data studied in the physical and social sciences can be approximated with a Zipfian distribution, one of a family of related discrete power law probability distributions.