Straight talk about literacy and reading. Literacy empowers and liberates all people, this is a fundamental human right everyone needs to protect and advance. “The great object to be accomplished in reading as a rhetorical exercise is, to convey to the hearer, fully and clearly, the ideas and feelings of the writer.” McGuffey, William Holmes
Student Friendly Grammar ELA Glossary | No Excuses Testing Vocabulary
Student Friendly Grammar / ELA Glossary
Atlas A book of maps or a book of tables, charts, pictures on one subject.
Mr. Taylor has a world atlas in his classroom.
Abbreviation A shorter form of a word or phrase, i.e. AZ for Arizona.
The abbreviation for the United States of America is U.S.A.
Adverb A word that modifies a verb by identifying time, place, speed, etc.
Quickly is an adverb in the sentence "Jose quickly finished his homework. "
Antonyms A word opposite in meaning to another word.
Cold is the antonym of hot.
Apostrophe The mark used to show a letter or letters have been left out of a word or phrase or to show ownership. Example of letters left out: You've is short for "you have" and an apostrophe shows that "have" is missing two letters.
Example of ownership: Mr. Taylor's class reads several books each year.
Example of ownership: The apostrophe in the sentence "Mr. Taylor's class reads several books each year." shows the class belongs to Mr. Taylor.
Bias One meaning of "bias" is to like or dislike one thing over another.
Claudia has bias for chocolate over all other candy.
Chronological order To arrange events in the order they occurred.
In chronological order, our class has computer lab on Monday, music on Tuesday, gym on Wednesday, library on Thursday, and art on Friday.
Complete sentence A complete sentence includes at least a subject and a verb.
"Claudia ran." is a complete sentence.
Context clues Words, phrases or sentences around a new word that helps the reader make a logical guess about the meaning of the new word.
Use context clues to figure out what a new word means.
Contraction A word or phrase shortened by leaving out one or more letters or sounds.
"You'll" is the contraction of "you will."
Compound word A compound word is made when two words are joined to form a new word. The words "shoe" and "string" are joined to form the compound word "Shoestring."
Biography The history of a persons life. If you become famous, someone will write your biography.
Describe To tell or write about something. Please describe your backpack.
Declarative A sentence that makes a statement. "The earth is round." is a declarative sentence.
Dictionary A book of alphabetically listed words with their meanings and other information. Students need a dictionary when they go to college.
Exclamatory A sudden, angry outcry; to cry out; shout; or speak suddenly in surprise, etc. "Lillian, be quiet! shouted her mother is an exclamatory phrase.
Fact Something that really happened; truth; actuality; things as they exist.
It is a fact that the moon revolves around the earth.
Fairy tale A fairy tale is a type of short story with fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, dwarves, giants or gnomes, and usually magic or enchantments.
The story "Jack and the Beanstalk" is a fairy tale.
Folk tale A story or legend originating and traditional among a group of people (folk = people), especially one forming part of the spoken tradition of the everyday people.
The stories about Paul Bunyan and Babe the Blue Ox are folk tales.
Interrogative Asking a question. "Do you like chocolate ice cream?" is an interrogative.
Index One meaning of "index" is an alphabetical list of names, subjects, etc., together with page numbers where they can be found--usually placed at the end of a book.
In this book, the index says there is information about the moon on pages 31 and 73.
Instructions Education; teaching; lessons or a list of steps to be followed to complete an assignment. (1) Every teacher at Rio Vista gives instructions to their students. (2) It is hard to use a TV remote without reading the instructions.
Main characteristics The most important things that identify a person, plant, object--or anything in the universe. The main characteristics of most cars are four wheels, a body where the driver and passengers sit, a steering wheel, an engine, and headlights and taillights.
Nonfiction Books and stories which only include real people, animals, plants, science, events, etc. A book about birds in Tucson is a nonfiction book.
Main idea The main idea of a passage or reading is the the most important thought or message. (In contrast to the term topic, which refers to the subject under discussion.)
The main idea of Mr. Taylor's instructions is that it is important to follow directions.
Mmulti-meaning words Words which have more than one meaning.
Multi-meaning words will have the different meanings listed and numbered (1, 2, 3, etc.) in the dictionary.
Opinion A person's belief based on what seems true, or probable; a person's judgment.
Many people have the opinion that French cooking is the best in the world.
Organization A group of persons organized for some specific purpose, such as a club, business, team, etc. The Rio Vista band is an organization of students with an interest in music.
Personal narrative A story that tells a story based on a personal experience of the writer. Jasmine wrote a personal narrative about a trip to visit her grandmother.
Plural More than one of something. The plural of bone is bones.
Plot The arrangement of the main events in a book, story, poem, or film, also known as the "story line." The plot of most mysteries starts with a murder.
Point of view A way of viewing things; an attitude or the position from which something is observed or considered; a standpoint. It is Mr. Taylor's point of view that students must be held responsible for completing their work.
Possessive The form of a word that shows ownership. The possessive form of John is John's. For example, to say John owns the airplane, you would say "It is John's airplane."
Predicate In a sentence, the verb (action word) or the verb and words that describe the verb. "Runs fast" is the predicate in the sentence "Magalia runs fast."
Prefix A prefix is placed at the beginning of a word to change its meaning.
In the word "unhappy," "un-" is the prefix.
Prefixes Prefixes are placed at the beginning of words to change their meanings.
The prefixes we will see often are "pre-" (before), "post-" (after), "un-" (opposite of), "anti-"(against), "hemi-" (half), "non-" (absence of), "out-" (exceeding), "trans-" (across), etc. The sentence "John was unhappy in preschool" has two prefixes.
Punctuation (commas) Special marks in sentences or phrases that make the sentences or phrases easier to understand. Some common punctuation marks are: . , ' ; ? !
The comma ( , ) tells where to pause or take a breath.
Root word A word that can start to build the meaning of many words. "Corn" is the root word of : popcorn; cornflower; cornmeal; cornbread; and cornmeal: all the words mean something about corn.
Run-on sentence A run-on sentence is a sentence in which two or more independent clauses (i.e., complete sentences) are joined without appropriate punctuation ( ; ) or a conjunction (and, for, nor, but, or, yet and so). "Sydney and Sabrina were in the band Sydney played the saxophone Sabrina played percussion" is an example of three run-on sentences.
Introduction The introduction is at the beginning of a story and it tells you what the main idea(s) will be; it lets you "meet" the main idea. An introduction to your teacher lets you meet.
Singular In grammar, the form of a word that says there is only one of something.
In the sentence "There was only one Juliana in the class, but there were two Gabriels," Juliana is singular and Gabriels is plural.
Sign The word "sign" has many meanings. Among them are: to write your name (signature); a symbol with a specific meaning ( $ meaning dollars); and hand gestures that give information (sign language). When you vote in any election, you have to sign your name. story elements (character, setting, plot) The who, what, where and why--the parts that make up a story. In Harry Potter, the main characters are Harry, Hermione, and Ron; the setting is Castle Hogwarts; and the plot is to learn to be wizards and keep Harry safe from Voldemort.
Schedule The way things are planned to happen in our lives, schools, or work.
Sometimes Mr. Taylor's class schedules a trip to the gem and mineral show in February.
Subject The person, place or thing that does the action in a sentence. In the sentence "Michael finished his report before lunch," "Michael" is the subject, and "finished" is the action (verb).
Suffixes Letters or syllables added to the end of a word to change its meaning.
Suffixes such as "-ish" and "-er" can be added to the word "small" to change its meaning to smallish and smaller.
Summarize To state briefly; to shorten to its most important parts. Mr. Taylor asked us to summarize the first chapter of Harry Potter and the Sorcery’s Stone.
Supporting details They come after the topic sentence, making up the body of a paragraph. What do they do? They give details to develop and help the reader better understand the topic sentence (main idea). If your topic sentence is "Harry Potter has a special wand," you could add supporting details about the wand, such as where he got it, what it's made of, and why it's a special wand.
Synonyms Different words that have the same meaning. Synonyms of "bend" are curve and twist.
Verb (types and functions) A word that in a sentence that tells you the action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), or a state of being (be, exist, stand). In the sentence "Anthony ran his race and is now standing next to the track," "ran" (the action) and "standing" (state of being) are both verbs.
Acronym A word that is made by putting together parts of other words.
The word "radar" is an acronym that was built from "radio detecting and ranging"
( "ra + d + a + r" ).
Adjective A word or phrase that modifies (describes) a noun. The word "brilliant" is an adjective in the sentence "Yatzari is a brilliant student". "Brilliant" describes the noun "student".
Adverb A word that Modifies (describes) a verb. "Suddenly" is an adverb in the sentence "Anthony suddenly remembered his homework assignment". "Suddenly" describes the verb "remembered."
Almanac A book that gives useful information about a particular subject; sometimes published in a month-by-month order. For example, a gardening almanac might tell when to plant different flowers and vegetables.
Analogy A phrase or sentence that shows how different things may be alike in some ways. "A human heart is like a pump" is an analogy. The heart and pump are alike in one way: they each pump something.
Anthology A book that is a collection of different writers' works (essays, stories, poems, etc.). "Mr. Taylor had so many interesting stories to tell. One day he was going to publish his collection as 'An Artist's Anthology.' "
Antonym word that has an opposite meaning. An antonym of "hot" is "cold"; an antonym of "fast" is "slow".
Aphorism A short, clear, wise statement that tells an opinion or a saying that many people believe is true. An aphorism about a famous musician is the sentence "Irving Berlin has no place in American music - he IS American music." audience (as listeners and readers) A group of people that gather to see or hear a performance - when the performance is an "out-loud" reading, the performers are the readers and the audience are the listeners. For example: "Mr. Taylor and Maria were taking turns reading 'The Chamber of Secrets' to the class. The audience was very quiet as the readers reached a scary part of the story."
Author's purpose The reason for writing - to inform, to question, to entertain.
"Fernando worked hard on his first prompt. His author's purpose was to entertain his readers with his funny story."
Autobiography The story of someone's life, written by that person. "Mr. Taylor had given the students their first assignment of the year: a one-page autobiography."
Bibliography A list of the books and materials consulted; appearing at the end of the text. "Leslie was sure to include her bibliography at the end of her science report."
Brochure A booklet or pamphlet that describes a subject; often an advertisement.
"Mrs. Kuhn carefully read the brochure that announced the opening of the University Science Fair."
Caption A short description or title of an illustration in a text. "Gloria had written the caption ' What I Want to be When I Grow Up ' under her drawing of a jet pilot ."
Category A set of things that are grouped together because they have something in common. "Eric had lots of homework to do. Which category would he start with? Reading, Writing, Science, Math ...? "
cause/effect characteristics Cause is the action that makes something happen; Effect is the something that happens. "Sarah knocked over a glass of water onto her homework pages. Knocking over the glass was the cause of soaking her homework. Wet homework was the effect of knocking over the glass."
Conclusion The part that brings something to an end OR a decision that is made after looking at all the facts. "Andrew thought the conclusion of ‘Harry Potter and The Chamber of Secrets‘ was really exciting!" "After much thought, Anthony came to the conclusion that the answer to the long division problem was '286' "
Conjunction A connecting word that links sentences or words ("and", "or", "if", "but" ...). "David and Jose wanted to talk to Gage or Sam before school, but the bus was late."
Conjunctions in this sentence were "and", "or", and "but".
Contest An organized test among entrants to find out which is best at doing something.
"On Tuesday there was a contest between the two fourth grades to see which class was best at playing cricket."
Conversation A talk with someone. "Mrs. Kuhn would have a conversation with the "Wheels in Motion" people to learn whether their contest would come to Rio Vista this year."
Diary A book of a person's daily happenings and thoughts. "George Washington's diary was full of interesting things that happened before the United States became a nation."
Double negatives Using two negative forms together in a phrase or sentence; not good English. "I won't never use double negatives when I write a story!"
Drama Works written for performance on stage, television, or radio; usually serious subjects and manner of performance. Sometimes anything that is not a comedy is called a drama. The book “Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire” was dramatized into a movie.
drawing conclusions Reaching a conclusion, or a final decision, about something.
"After Mr. Taylor sees the results of the test, he will be drawing conclusions on on the next homework assignment."
Encyclopedia A reference book or set of books giving much information on all areas or specialized areas of knowledge. "Jade, did you find 'Mount St. Helens' in the encyclopedia?"
Fable A make-believe short story that teaches a moral, especially with animals as characters. In the fable “The Tales of Peter Rabbit“, a young rabbit has adventures and learns about the world.
Genre A category of artistic works, based on form, style or subject matter.
For example, a detective novel is a genre of fiction.
Noun A word (or group of words) that names a person, place, or thing.
The sentence "Ellie quickly gathered up her books to fill her backpack ,"
contains three nouns.
making inferences Reaching a conclusion or decision from facts and reasoning.
"Hector and Alexis were making inferences on the cost of their field trip by adding up their lunch expenses."
Outline A rough plan of a written work or speech; a list of main points or features to be covered. "Mr. Taylor's drew an outline of his chapter on the smart board."
Possessive nouns Persons, places, or things that show ownership.
In the sentence "Sally’s car is with yellow stripes," the possessivenoun is "Sally's" .
Preposition A relation or function word that connects a noun or pronoun to another part of a sentence ( "in", "by", "for", to", etc.). In the sentence "Steven hit the ball and ran for first base," the word "for" is a preposition that joins "first base" to the rest of the sentence.
Pronoun A word that may be substituted for a noun ("I", "you", "them", "who", "ours", "he", "she", "anybody", etc.). "Adriana has been working hard on long division, and it has been worth the effort because she scored high on her math test!" The three pronouns in this sentence are "it", "she", and "her".
Proofread To check written work for errors and mark the changes to be made.
"Pedro just needed to proofread and correct his 'Read and Response' chapter, and he would be finished."
sentence fragment Words that do not form a complete sentence of subject and verb.
"Mr. Taylor for the first time." is a sentence fragment because it has no verb.
simple predicate The verb or action word of a sentence or phrase, without words that modify the verb. "Ran" is the simple predicate of the sentence "Monique expertly ran the cotton candy booth for the Rio Vista's Fantasy Fair."
Simile A figure of speech that compares two different things (often with "as" or "like") .
"Red as a beet" is a simile in the sentence "Tim's face was red as a beet."
simple subject The subject of the verb of a sentence, without words that modify the subject. In the sentence "The shiny spotted horse frisked around the pasture," the word "horse" is the simple subject.
Synonym A word that means the same, or almost the same, as another word.
The word "scholar" is a synonym for "student".
Alliteration Repeating the same sounds at the beginning of words for two or more words in a row. Many men may meet monthly. Girls gladly go gliding.
Caption (identify) A title, short explanation, or description accompanying an drawing or a photograph, or words on the bottom of television or movie.
The caption under the picture read: "Mr. Taylor's 4th grade, 2011-12."
Comparative A form of an adjective or adverb which compares one thing to another.
He is taller than his father. There is less water in Arizona than in Louisiana.
Coordinating conjunctions connect words, phrases, and clauses. The bowl of cereal is hot and delicious. (The coordinating conjunction is "and.")
Excerpt A passage, quotation, or segment taken from a longer work, such as a literary or musical composition, a document, or a film. Mr. Taylor's Eclectic Spelling Book has excerpts from many books and poems.
Fiction Books and stories that come from the imagination of the writer. Novels, short stories, detective mysteries and science fiction are fiction.
Foreshadowing is the use of hints or clues to suggest what will happen later in the story. There are many examples of foreshadowing in Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone.
Glossary A list at the back of a book that explains or defines difficult or unusual words and expressions used in the book. Nearly all the science books used at Rio Vista have a glossary in the back.
Graphic organizer A graphic organizer is a you can use to help you plan what you're going to write. Mr. Taylor does everything he can to get students to organize their thoughts using a graphic organizer before they start a writing.
Homonym (also called a homophone) Words that are spelled and pronounced the same way, but have different meanings. The metal lead and the verb lead are homonyms.
Hyperbole Extreme exaggeration or overstatement, especially in written work.
Adalberto used hyperbole when he told the class the fish he caught was big as a shark.
Idiom An accepted expression in a given language that is not grammatically standard or cannot be understood from the meanings of its individual constituents.
She heard is straight from the horse's mouth is an example of an idiom.
Interjections Words, exclamations or phrases inserted into a sentence, often expressing an emotion. ???????
Introductory paragraph The first paragraph of an article or student writing should be attention grabbing and make the reader want to finish the article or story.
The introductory paragraph of an article on polar bears might get your attention by telling you that the estimated number of polar bears has grown from 5,000 to 25,000 between the 1950 and 2000.
Labels Descriptive words applied to persons, groups or objects. Rio Vista Elementary School includes two labels: Elementary School tells you the level of the school; and Rio Vista is the name of a particular school.
Magazine A publication, generally published on a regular schedule (weekly, twice-monthly, monthly, etc.) Time is a news magazine that has been published weekly for about 80 years.
Main point The most important idea in a piece of writing. a speech or a lecture.
The main point in Mr. Taylor's lecture was that students will be held responsible for completing their assignments.
Moral A moral is the lesson (don't steal, don't cheat, be nice, etc.) to be learned from a story or event. One moral in the Aesop's fable of the Tortoise and the Hare is that "slow and steady wins the race."
Myth A traditional story that tries to explain nature (origin of man, disease, volcanoes, storms, floods, etc.) in which the main characters are gods and heroes. In one Greek myth Zeus, the most powerful god, was afraid his wife Metis would give birth to a god more powerful than he was, so he swallowed Metis.
main idea/stated and implied The main idea is the most important point in a piece of writing or a lecture. The main idea can be clearly explained (i.e., stated), or hinted at (i.e., implied). The main idea of Mr. Taylor's Reading Boot Camp is stated to be improving student reading abilities so they can read to learn.
Metaphor A metaphor is a figure of speech that uses an image or story represent an idea or quality. Her eyes were glistening jewels is a metaphor.
Narrative A narrative is a story that describes a series of fictional or non-fictional events.
Yatzari's narrative of her experience on the roller coaster held our attention.
Narrator The character within a story who tells the story, or a person who tells the story to an audience. Alivia was the narrator for the 4th grade class play.
News Current events presented on TV, the internet, twitter, in newspapers or magazines, or shared by word of mouth.
More people get their news from TV and the internet than from newspapers.
Novel A novel is a long, fictional story. Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone is a novel.
Onomatopoeia A word that imitates the sound it describes.
Cuckoo, hiccup, zoom, bang, beep, splash and vroom are examples of onomatopoeia.
Parts of speech In grammar, categories of words. Nouns and verbs are parts of speech.
Personification Giving animals, objects or concepts human characteristics.
Cartoon animal characters who talk and act like humans are examples of personification.
Persuade Convincing yourself or another to adopt an idea, attitude, or action using logic.
Sydney tried to persuade Frida to join the Rio Vista band.
Persuasion A process of guiding another person to adopt an idea, attitude, or action using logic. Isaac tried using persuasion to get Hector to play soccer.
Purpose Purpose is a result, end, aim or goal of an action.
The purpose of flash cards is to learn words by reading them over and over.
Plot The order of events in a story. The plot of a novel or story deals with what happens to the main character.
Point of view/perspective Writer's (or your) view of the world consisting of opinions, beliefs and experiences. It is Mr. Taylor's point of view/perspective that reading boot camp will improve your reading ability.
Prompt In a writing assignment, the subject you are told to write about. "What I did during my summer vacation" used to be a common prompt the first day of a new school year.
Punctuation marks (colon/semi-colon) Colon is the punctuation mark (:) used before a long quotation, explanation, example, or list of items. A semi-colon (;) is a punctuation mark used most often to separate closely related clauses in a sentence.
Mr. Taylor expects at least three things from his students: 1) their attention; 2) completion of assignments; and 3) respect for other members of the class.
Reference source A source of information, the most common of which are: a dictionary; an atlas; a thesaurus; the internet, etc. One reference source for my science project was the Encyclopedia Americana.
reference book A source of information in book form, such as a dictionary, encyclopedia, atlas or thesaurus. The best reference book for finding synonyms is the thesaurus.
Reports To give information (usually written or spoken) about something (person, place, thing, theory, etc.) to other people. Our science reports are due in the spring.
Resolution Resolution has many meanings, one of which is to set a personal goal.
Mr. Jones' New Year's resolution was to run a mile every day this year.
Resource In education, a resource is something or someone that helps you learn.
The smart board is a resource that Mr. Taylor uses to get excited about learning.
Root words ( as aids in determining meaning) The basic word upon which other words are formed. The meaning of new words can often be determined by identifying the root word The root word of saddlery is saddle, so I can guess that saddlery has something to do with saddles.
Rhythm A regularly occurring physical motion or pattern of speech. Many poems have an interesting rhythm.
Satire A method of criticizing people in which you make fun of their bad habits, abuses and shortcomings--usually with the goal of shaming them into improving.
Punch was a famous British humor magazine which used a great deal of satire.
Simile A simile is a figure of speech that directly compares two different things, usually by using the words "like," "as," or "than."
Cristian seemed to run as fast as a speeding bullet.
Stanza In a poem, a grouping of lines set off by a space.
Here are two stanzas of a poem:
Mary had a little lamb,
little lamb, little lamb,
Mary had a little lamb,
whose fleece was white as snow.
And everywhere that Mary went,
Mary went, Mary went,
and everywhere that Mary went,
the lamb was sure to go.
Summarize To state briefly.
We summarize the main idea of each chapter in our writing journals.
Summary A brief statement or account covering the main idea.
Each chapter summary in our writing journal must include at least five sentences.
Superlative Superior to or better than all others, of highest quality or supreme, usually a using a word ending in -est. Mt. McKinley (Denali) is the highest mountain in North America.
Thesaurus A reference containing synonyms and antonyms.
The thesaurus says synonyms for small include petite, little , wee, tiny and teeny.
tall tale A story with characters or happenings that are exaggerated or made bigger than real life. "Pecos Bill" is a tall tale of a cowboy who could do unbelievable things, like rope a tornado with his lariat.
Title page (parts of) A title page is a page at the beginning of a book that gives the book’s title, the author, and the publisher. The title, “HARRY POTTER AND THE SORCERER’S STONE”; the author, “J.K. ROWLING”; and the publisher, “Arthur A. Levine Books” all appear on the titlepage for the first Harry Potter book.
Verb tense The form of a verb that shows not only the action, but when the action happens (in the past, present, or future). In the sentence “ Mr. Taylor’s class will leave for lunch in 15 minutes”, the verb tense is future; In the sentence “The class is leaving now”, the verb tense is present; In the sentence “The class left,” the verb tense is past.
I didn't recognize her at first because her hair was so different.
The bottom support of anything; foundation; basis.
He based his answer on the dictionary definition.
The listing of things by some characteristic, eg., first letter; size, color, age.
The student names were listed in alphabetical order.
The portion of written matter dealing with one idea, usually beginning with an indentation on a new line.
The paragraph had an excellent topic sentence.
Regular; typical or everyday activity
Singing is part of the routine in Mr. Taylor's class.
A person who talks or is talking.
Mrs. Kuhn was the speaker at the school assembly.
Best chance of happening; highest probability.
If you don't do your homework, you will most likely get into trouble in Mr. Taylor's class.
Something to be learned or studied; part of a book, an exercise, etc., assigned for study.
The math lesson for today is long division.
To propose an idea for consideration.
Please suggest methods for encouraging students to do their homework.
Likening; reviewing similarities.
There is no comparison between driving and flying to New York.
To tell about; to list important characteristics; to draw a picture to represent something.
Please describe Rio Vista Elementary School.
The reason for doing something; the reason something exists or is done, made, used, etc.
The purpose for homework is to give students practice in reading, writing, and arithmetic.
A person or thing that has been chosen.
Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone is one book selection for Mr. Taylor's class.
Pluto is no longer a planet, according to a new definition.
Something that happens; an occurrence, especially one of importance.
The Science Fair is a big event at Rio Vista Elementary School.
A part that is cut off or separated; a part of a book or newspaper.
I like to read the sports section in the newspaper.
Setting forth facts, etc., in a speech or writing; a single sentence or assertion.
Mrs. Kuhn issued a statement about the school performance at the last fire drill.
The most important thought of a paragraph, article, orlarger written work.
The topic sentence expresses the main idea in a paragraph.
To look at two or more objects to see how they are alike and different.
Mr. Taylor asked the class to compare Arizona and New Mexico.
To identify the differences between two or more things.
Mr. Taylor asked the class to contrast the Harry Potter and Malfoy characters.
Used to identify the best of three or more objects, people, etc.
The University of Kansas beat Kentucky and was the greatest college basketball team in 2012.
A statement, picture in words, or account that tells us how something looks, sounds, smells, thinks, etc.
Jose gave a description of the speeding car to the police.
Thought about or decided upon with care.
Louis considered whether or not to have a soda with his lunch.
To put things in order; people in a group with structure, e.g., a union or sports team.
It's easier to find something in an organized backpack than one with everything thrown in.
To put in order; to put individual items into some order.
Mr. Taylor organizes his class by assigning tables.
A basis or cause for some belief, action, event, etc.
The reason given most often for not having a journal in class is that it was left in a car.
On the condition or understanding; often with that.
You will avoid problems in Mr. Taylor's class, provided you do your homework and behave in class.
To keep from happening; to stop.
Preventing war is the goal of many people.
To stand for; to present a picture to the mind.
A student was chosen to represent the class in the school council.
My mother decides what we're going to have for dinner.
The subject of a composition; a short essay; the main idea or topic.
The importance of graduating from high school was the theme ofof the TV show.
The past tense of present; to give; to hand over.
Winners of sports tournaments are usually presented with trophies.
Two or more words in a sentence which act together as a unit.
Long sentences contain several phrases.
The place in a story where a decisive change occurs; a change of direction.
The turning point in the story was the car accident.
Single items that represent a group of similar items; a pattern or model.
There are several examples of good behavior in Mr. Taylor's class.
To foretell the future; declare of tell in advance.
Many basketball fans predicted that Kentucky would win the NCAA basketball tournament.
The reason something happens; the reason for an action.
You can cause a forest fire if you don't make certain your camp fire is out.
Result; to produce results.
We do not know how much effect that CO2 produced by man has on the climate.
To be unlike; to disagree in opinion or belief.
Students often differ with the grades they've been given.
A piece of writing about a specific topic; an individual item.
Mr. Taylor asked the class to write an article about the University of Arizona farm across from the school.
A shortened version of a book, article, or paragraph which includes only the most important ideas.
We have to write a summary about the main idea for each chapter in the book we are reading.
Usually a line drawing to illustrate a mathematical idea, or to explain the parts or operation of something.
A diagram usually helps explain the answer to a science problem.
Orders; directions; passing on knowledge or information.
Mr. Taylor has given instructions many times on the required Read and Response format.
Instructions; the path to follow; steps to complete a project.
Many students do not follow the science report directions.
Likely; more likely than not.
If you do not do your homework, Mr. Taylor will probably talk to your parents.
A small, individual part; an item.
Responses in Mr. Taylor's class must include a topic sentence and five sentences with detail about the topic sentence.
Holds up; justifies; provides a foundation for.
Mr. Taylor supports reading improvement by assigning challenging books to his class.
A work or group of words naming something; a division of the school year.
There is a Latin term for each part of the human body.
A statement of the meaning of a word or phrase.
You sometimes have to use the Oxford English Dictionary to find the definition of a word.
The students closely followed each other out of the classroom when the fire alarm rang.
High Frequency Academic Vocabulary: Tier 2
accelerate-to make something go faster. The driver accelerated the car.
achieve-to do or complete something with success. He wanted to become famous, and he achieved his goal.
adjacent-near or next to. The bank is adjacent to the post office.
alternative-one of two or more choices. Our two alternatives are walking or taking a taxi.
analyze-to separate into parts for close study; examine and explain. If we analyze the problem, perhaps we can solve it.
approach-to come or go near to. Be careful when you approach a strange dog.
in amount or time, but not exact. The mechanic told us the approximate
cost to repair the car. What is the approximate time that you will
from personal opinions, wishes, or feelings instead of from a rule or
reason. The jury's decision seemed unfair and arbitrary.
assert-to state with force or confidence. He asserted his innocence.
assess-to set or try to find the importance or value of; evaluate; estimate. They assessed the damage to his car.
assign-to choose someone to do a particular thing. His boss assigned him to work the night shift.
think that something is true without knowing the facts or asking about
them. Everyone assumed they were rich because they had a big house,
many cars, and a swimming pool.
authorize-to give authority to. My mother authorized the doctor to treat my brother's broken arm.
automatic-working or operating by itself. This house has an automatic heating system.
chapter-one of the main parts of a book. The last chapter of this novel is the most exciting.
compensate-to pay or repay. I compensated him for the dinner he gave us.
complex-not simple. A computer is a complex machine. English spelling is complex.
complicate-to make more difficult to do or understand. The bad weather complicated our vacation plans.
do what is asked or demanded; act in agreement with a rule (sometimes
followed by "with"). I complied with my teacher's request that I get
permission from my parents. Please comply with the campground's rule
component- a part of something. One of the components of the engine is missing. Vegetables are a component of a healthy diet.
comprehend-to understand. Do you comprehend the instructions?
conceive-to give shape to in the mind. She conceived a clever story.
make purer or stronger by taking away parts that are not necessary. To
concentrate some substances, you remove the water they contain. If you
boil this sauce for a long time, it will concentrate and get thick.
general idea or thought. The concept of marriage is different in
different countries. My youngest child has difficulty learning new
conclude-to bring to an end; finish or complete. We concluded the meeting and went out for lunch.
consequence-that which follows; result. Her stomach pain was a consequence of eating too much.
consist-to be made up or formed of something. The United States consists of fifty states.
constant-going on without a pause. The dog's constant barking annoyed the neighbors.
construct-to build; put together. They constructed the garage in three days.
speak with someone or look up something to gain advice or information.
Bob consulted the doctor about his pain. I consulted the dictionary to
check the spelling of a word.
context-the setting of a word or phrase that affects its meaning. The meaning of the word "fly" changes depending on its context.
compare in order to show differences. The book contrasted the lives of
women a hundred years ago with the lives of women today.
contribute-to give something for a purpose. The contributed time and money to the animal shelter.
convert-to change into a different form or state. This sofa converts to a bed. He converted to his wife's religion.
create-to bring into being. The chef created a new dish.
criterion-a standard or test by which to judge or decide. Power is only one criterion of a car's quality.
important; deciding the success or failure of something. It is crucial
that you follow directions during a fire drill. The surgeon had
reached a crucial moment during the operation.
figures, or other pieces of information that can be used in different
ways. Computers are used to store large amounts of data. Data about the
U.S. population is collected every ten years.
define-to explain the meaning of a word or phrase. This dictionary defines hundreds of words.
definite-clear or exact. I have no definite plans for Friday night. I have a definite reason for wanting it this way.
demonstrate-to show how to do something. The physical education teacher demonstrated some new exercises.
denote-to be a mark or sign of. A flashing red light denotes danger.
derive-to obtain from a particular source (usually followed by "from"). Many medicines have ingredients derived from plants.
draw plans for the form or structure of something. She designs and
makes her own clothes. He designed an addition to his house.
devise-to invent or think out. She devised a plan to earn money.
devote-to give to a purpose; dedicate. They devoted their time and energy to helping others.
dimension-size as measured in length, width, or depth. The dimensions of the box are two feet long, one foot wide, and six inches deep.
distinct-different or separate. There are many distinct kinds of dogs.
distort-to twist out of shape; change the way a thing looks or acts. The ripples in the pond distorted his reflection.
element-a basic part of any whole. One element of this recipe is missing.
emphasize-to give particular attention to something. The president emphasized the importance of education.
on or verifiable by experience or experiment, rather than on or by
theory. Claims for the effectiveness of the drug are based on empirical
evidence-Scientists use the empirical method so that their results can be verified.
ensure-to make certain; cause to be a certainty. Those dark clouds ensure rain.
that exists objectively and distinctly, whether nonliving or living;
thing or being. A wife in those days was not viewed as a separate entity
from her husband. As a corporation, the business is a distinct entity
and must pay its own taxes.
objects and conditions that exist in a place and influence how people
feel and develop. A safe environment is important for the proper
development of a child. Problems with the boss create a bad work
make or consider to be equal or equivalent. Classroom learning is
essential, but it cannot be equated with experience on the job. Her
parents equate money with success.
equivalent-the same as or equal to another in force, value, measure, or meaning. Three feet is equivalent to one yard.
establish-to start or make something that did not exist before. He established a new business last year.
evaluate-to judge or set the value of. The magazine evaluated ten new cars.
evident-easily seen; clear. Her happiness was evident to all.
expand-to make larger or wider. The supermarket expanded its parking lot.
expose-to show something that you usually cannot see. We pulled up the carpet and exposed the wood floor.
external-of the outside or outer part. He cleaned only the external surfaces of the oven.
of being done, carried out, or brought about; possible. The project
seemed quite feasible when they started, but they soon ran into an
obstacle. Finishing by March is a feasible objective in our opinion.
vary or change irregularly; rise and fall. The price of gold
continually fluctuates. My appetite fluctuates; some days I'm hungry all
the time and other days I don't feel like eating at all.
focus-the area of greatest attention or activity. The focus of the report was changes in the economy.
formulate-to state in precise or systematic terms.
purpose for which an object or a person is used. The function of a
police officer is to keep the peace. The function of scissors is to cut
generate-to bring into being or to produce. The human body generates heat.
promise that something you have bought will work well. If it does not,
the store must either repair it or give you a new one. There is a two
year guarantee on my new computer.
prediction or educated guess that can be tested and can be used to
guide further study. This chapter explains scientists' new hypothesis
about the birth of stars.
identify-to find out or show who someone is or what something is. She identified him as the criminal. He is good at identifying trees.
ignore-to refuse to recognize or notice. She ignored me at the dance.
illustrate-to provide pictures to go along with written material. He illustrated the children's book with pictures of dinosaurs.
impact-the coming together of objects with great force. The impact of the bus against the tree cracked the windshield.
rather than directly stated. She realized that his words,
complimentary on the surface, contained an implicit insult. Her
rejection of his proposal was implicit in her silence.
imply-to hint or suggest without saying directly. When she said that the floor was dirty, she was implying that I should mop it.
indicate-to show or point out. Can you indicate your street on the map?
individual-single, separate, or different from others. You need to water each individual plant.
hold back, restrain, prevent, or tend to do so. His fears inhibit him
from making friends. Salt inhibits the freezing of water. Threats of
violence inhibited the people from registering to vote.
initial-first. I was nervous before my initial visit to the doctor.
innovation-a new idea, product, or way to do something. Thanks to innovations in technology, many people can now make use of a computer.
a very great degree of something, such as heat, or being in a very
great degree or state. The intense heat from the burning building made
it impossible for the fire fighters to go in.
understand in a particular way. I interpreted her smile to mean that
she agreed. We had to interpret a poem in English class.
intuitive-of or pertaining to intuition. He had an intuitive understanding of the situation.
involve-to have as a necessary part; include. Police work involves danger. Please don't involve me in your problems.
isolate-to set apart in order to make alone. The doctors isolated the sick child. His house is isolated in the woods.
magnetic-having to do with magnets and the way they work. Certain metals are magnetic.
magnitude-size or extent. The magnitude of the universe can make us feel small.
major-very important. The economy is a major issue in the campaign for president.
handle or operate skillfully with the hands. He manipulated the clay
to form a tiny sculpture. Do you know how to manipulate the controls?
mathematics-the study of numbers, amounts, and shapes, and the relationships among them.
method-a regular or proven way of doing something. He has his own method of working.
minimum-the smallest possible amount or number. There is an age minimum for this movie.
modify-to change in some way; alter. They modified the language of the play so that the younger children could understand it.
negative-saying or meaning "no. "He gave a negative answer to the question.
notion-an idea, opinion, or view. I have no notion of what you mean.
obtain-to get; gain. He obtained his college degree in just three years.
obvious-easy for anyone to see or understand; clear. It was obvious that he liked her a lot.
occur-to take place; happen. Where were you when the crime occurred?
passive-not being active or being part of an activity. Watching television is a passive activity.
period-a section of time with a set beginning and end. We will be on vacation for a period of three weeks.
perspective-a way of showing objects on the flat surface of a picture so that they seem the correct size and distance from one another.
pertinent-having to do with or connected to a subject; relevant. Sailing is not pertinent to a discussion about the desert.
phase-a particular stage of development or of a process. Teenagers go through many phases as they become adults.
phenomenon-a happening or fact that can be seen or known through the senses. A hurricane is an example of a weather phenomenon.
portion-a part of a whole. He read a portion of the book.
potential-able to come into being; possible. That broken stair is a potential danger.
precede-to come before in time. The movie was preceded by several ads for other movies.
precise-stated in a clear way and with details. Because of the precise directions, we were able to find the park.
presume-to take for granted; assume. I presumed you would wait for me even if I was late.
prime-first in importance. Sugar was the prime export of Hawaii for many years.
basic law or belief on which action or behavior is based. Our
country's laws are based on the principles of liberty and justice for
proceed-to move forward after a stop. After you give your name, you may proceed to the front of the line.
publish-to prepare and print something for the public to read. I work for a company that publishes magazines.
pursue-to follow in order to reach or catch; chase. The police officer pursued the thief on foot.
random-made or done without purpose or pattern; made or done by chance. I made a random choice of five books from the library.
two end points or limits between which something can vary, or the
distance between these two limits. In this school, the range of ages is
from five to eleven. The paint store has a wide range of paint colors
to choose from.
react-to act in a particular way because of something that happened. Sue reacted calmly when she heard the bad news.
region-an area of the earth's surface that has a certain type of land and climate. This tree grows only in tropical regions.
make something necessary. When someone requires you to do something,
you must do it. The law requires drivers to have insurance. The school
requires physical examinations for all the children.
respective-of or belonging to each one. The brothers' respective ages are sixteen and twenty three.
restrict-to keep within certain limits. His parents restricted him to his room. Can we restrict our discussion to one topic?
reverse-opposite in direction, position, or movement. The reverse side of the towel is softer.
customary or expected behavior associated with a particular position
in a society. She feared that she could not fulfill the role of a royal
part that is different or apart from the whole. I like living in this
section of the city. Put the book back in the top section of the
of the parts into which something is or can be separated. She divided
the orange into segments. He wrote about one segment of our history.
select-to choose; pick. Please select the song you would like to play.
sequence-the order in which things follow one another. Classes at our school follow the same sequence every day.
group of similar things that come one after another. She read a series
of articles in the newspaper. He had a series of back injuries.
shift-to move or change position. The boy shifted in his chair.
signify-to serve as a sign of; mean. I've seen this symbol many times, but I can't remember what it signifies.
similar-being almost the same as something else. Lee's handwriting is similar to mine.
simultaneous-existing, happening, or done at the same time. The gymnasts all did a simultaneous flip.
sophisticated-having or showing a lot of knowledge or experience; not ignorant or simple. This author writes for a sophisticated audience.
group of living things that are the same in many important ways.
Members of a species can produce young together. Cats and dogs belong to
name or otherwise indicate explicitly. She specified her niece as the
heir to her fortune. Did he specify which brand of coffee he wanted?
stable-firm or steady; not likely to move. The table is not stable because one of its legs is too short.
piece of numerical information. The almanac also gives weather
statistics such as record high or record low temperatures. The census
gathers statistics on the population such as the number of children per
household. The percentage of people who voted in the election is an
status-a person's position or level in comparison with the position of other people. His status rose when he got the new job.
thing that is made up of different parts that are connected in a
particular way. A human cell is a complicated structure. That new hotel
is an interesting structure.
or happening after; following. His first film was a complete flop, but
his subsequent films were quite successful. Four years subsequent to
their arrival in New York, they moved the family to Chicago. In
subsequent years, they were to think fondly of how they had first met.
suffice-to meet needs, goals, or the like adequately; be sufficient.
sum-the number or amount that comes from adding two or more numbers. The sum of ten and ten is twenty.
short and usually comprehensive statement of what has been previously
stated. The paper ended with a concise summary of all of the writer's
points. I didn't have time to read the whole article so I read just the
technique-a particular way of doing something. He learned several techniques for baking bread.
field of knowledge having to do with the use of science and industry
to help solve common problems of life. Technology is used to help solve
tense-pulled or stretched tight. My muscles are still tense from lifting those heavy boxes.
form of verbs that shows when an action happens. In English, verbs
change their form to show past or present time. In the sentence "I
stopped the car," the verb "stopped" is in the past tense.
statement that explains why something happens but has not been proven.
The police have a theory about who stole the jewels. The scientists
discussed theories about the beginning of life on Earth.
very small amount of something. There was a trace of smoke in the air.
The police detective found a trace of lipstick on the glass.
beliefs and ways of doing things that are passed down from parents to
children. Many people celebrate holidays by carrying out old family
send or carry from one person, place, or thing to another. They
transmitted the message to their leader. The television station refused
to transmit the program.
or farthest in a progression; final. Your grade will be based on the
quality of your ultimate product. To become a full professor is her
ultimate goal. They sailed to the port of New York, but Minneapolis was
their ultimate destination.
have the experience of; receive; endure. She'll undergo surgery on her
foot next week. Our family underwent major changes last year.
usage-way or manner of using or treating something. The teacher explained the usage of the new words and expressions.
valid-based on truth, fact, or logic. It's valid to say that cats have whiskers. His argument is valid.
change from something else, or to be different from other things. The
weather varies a lot this time of year. The children vary in age from
eight years old to fifteen years old.
verbal-having to do with words. That poet has wonderful verbal skill.
make sure of the truth or correctness of. We verified his story by
talking to his father. The waiter verified our bill by checking it with a
vertical-straight up and down; upright. His shirt has vertical stripes.
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