Wednesday, September 30, 2015

Reading Placement Tests | GRADE Level K-8 FREE READING PLACEMENT TESTS

FREE printable pdf GRADE Level Reading Test 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, AND 8 Reading Placement Assessments

[PDF] VENTURES (READING) PLACEMENT TEST Version 1.0 © Cambridge University Press 2009

[PDF] PHONICS Reading Placement Test Copyright © Curriculum Associates, LLC

[PDF]Reading Placement Tests 2nd Grade - Reading Comprehension ... Diagnostic Placement Test Student Pages. ... 2ndGrade © CORE and Scholastic, Published by Scholastic Teaching Resources

[PDF]Reading Placement Tests 3rd Grade Reading Comprehension ... Diagnostic Placement Test Student Pages. ... 3rdGrade © CORE and Scholastic, Published by Scholastic Teaching Resources ...

[PDF]Diagnostic Placement Test Student Pages 4th Grade Scholastic Corporation4th Grade. Directions. This is a Reading test. Each question in this test has four ...Reading Placement Tests: 4th to 6th Grade © Scholastic Teaching Resources.

[PDF]Diagnostic Placement Test Student Pages 5th Grade Scholastic Corporation5th Grade. Directions. This is a Reading test. Each question in this test has four ...Reading Placement Tests: 4th to 6th Grade © Scholastic Teaching Resources.

[PDF]Diagnostic Placement Test Student Pages 6th Grade Scholastic Corporation6th Grade. Directions. This is a Reading test. Each question in this test has four ...Reading Placement Tests: 4th to 6th Grade © Scholastic Teaching Resources.

[PDF] VENTURES (READING) PLACEMENT TEST Version 1.0 © Cambridge University Press 2009

[PDF] PHONICS ReadingPlacement Test Copyright © Curriculum Associates, LLC

PRESCHOOL-KINDERGARTEN Basic Phonics Assessment [PDF] Test and Answer key

PRESCHOOL-KINDERGARTEN Advanced Phonics Assessment [PDF] Test and Answer key

Reading Test GRADE k-1 [PDF] Test and Answer key

Reading Test GRADE 1-2 A [PDF] Test and Answer key

Reading Test GRADE 1-2 B [PDF] Test and Answer key

Reading Test GRADE 2-3 A [PDF] Test and Answer key

Reading Test GRADE 2-3 B [PDF] Test and Answer key

Reading Test GRADE 3-4 A [PDF] Test and Answer key

Reading Test GRADE 3-4 B [PDF] Test and Answer key

Reading Test GRADE 4-5 A [PDF] Test and Answer key

Reading Test GRADE 4-5 B [PDF] Test and Answer key

Reading Test GRADE 5-6 [PDF] Test and Answer key

Reading Test GRADE 6-7 [PDF] Test and Answer key

Grade 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 MCAS ELA Reading & Math Test Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System

MCAS ELA Reading & Math Test Release of Spring 2015-2016 Test Items

Grade 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

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Grade 7

Grade 8

Grade 10

High School

Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System

Release of Spring 2014 Test Items

Grade 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Grade 7

Grade 8

Grade 10

High School

Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System

Release of Spring 2013 Test Items

Grade 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Grade 7

Grade 8

Grade 10

High School

Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System

Release of Spring 2012 Test Items

Grade 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

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Grade 10

High School

Grade 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

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High School

Tuesday, September 29, 2015

Reading Diagnostic Assessments Vs. Reading Assessments to Inform and Monitor Instruction

Reading Diagnostic Assessments Vs. Reading Assessments to Inform and Monitor Instruction

We create mountains of useless data in schools. Most data in Schools is Useless for helping low students close the gap or gifted students accelerate! Diagnostic Data is the most Important data that in needed to help students thrive and succeed!
What is a Diagnostic Reading Assessment?

Diagnostic reading assessments are a set of comprehensive targeted
assessment tools with the specific goal of finding and correcting reading problems. Diagnosing reading problems may start by assessing development delays that can impede Reading Readiness, Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Sight Word Fluency, Reading Fluency, and Tier 1, 2, and 3 Reading Vocabulary acquisition. Building a comprehensive understanding of developmental competencies and a clear understanding of present academic levels is the key to diagnosing reading delays and reading disabilities in students. The key to creating targeted interventions (RTI), short-term and long-term instructional reading goals and objectives, and tailor effective instruction is actionable diagnostic data! 

Diagnostic reading assessments are an adroit and systematic approach to diagnosing reading readiness and possible problems in a one or more reading domains. Reading readiness screens can be administered school-wide to find and target students that need further diagnostic interventions (RTI). Understanding reading  readiness and academic grade level reading norms gives teachers the all important, what do we do next! Targeted diagnostic information is used to build an understanding of a student’s problem and a real way to fix them. The results of a diagnostic reading assessments are designed to evaluate reading readiness or academic reading problem with precision and quickly. The recommend use of diagnostic reading assessment and school-wide screens is to support student success. RTI procedures should guide teachers to targeted and easy to follow reading interventions, as well as to determine an ongoing course of action to help students succeed. A complete description of a student's abilities, delays and or reading disability is necessary in order for teachers, parents and students to inform strategic instructional planning. Special education professionals, teachers, parents, and students must incorporate the highly targeted and individualized intervention strategies, tasks, lessons, procedures into daily school lessons and home support for reading success. Best practice reading instruction, all school reading programs should include a comprehensive diagnostic reading assessments inventory that is available to use by all teachers. Sean Taylor M.Ed 

What is a Reading Assessments to Inform and Monitor Instruction?
The purpose of reading Assessments to Inform and Monitor Instruction is to check the progress of developmental reading levels and reading curriculum acquisition. Continual tracking of each student’s reading levels (i.e fluency rates) helps inform curriculum decisions and short-term instructional planning. The important key use of Reading Assessments to Inform is they supply immediate data on the depth to which students are making progress in meeting developmental reading levels and acquisition of reading curriculum or standards. Collecting weekly or monthly data on the students reading growth and learning outcomes helps teachers, parents and students target the next steps in learning.  Continual progress monitoring provides critical information for continual adjustments to teaching and improvements in curriculum planning. 

Empowering teachers by allowing them to discard, revise, and adjust curriculum and modify instructional practices in response to student’s rates of learning is an important element in helping students thrive academically. The instructional needs of the students must guide the instructional pacing. More teacher and student support is the key to a students continual growth. Many teachers are pressed to effectively do quantitative progress monitoring.

Saturday, September 26, 2015

Music Brain Break | Singing Brain Break

Singing Brain Breaks with Lyrics | Music Brain Breaks

Low Expectations | Students with Disabilities

Low Expectations Vs. Misguided Expectations

Low expectations and poor educational opportunities are limiting
65 million students chance at academic or career success. Low expectations are systemic, they are built into the scripted basal curriculum and the push for a one size fits all education mentality. Common Bore! We must do better and learn how to develop high expectations with real results. We need to stop trying to turn our children into battery hens. 


Not Surprisingly, many of the 6.5 million US students with disabilities in this country leave high school without the academic skills necessary to thrive in a constantly changing economy. While the vast majority of students in special education do not have significant cognitive impairments that prohibit them from learning rigorous academic content, fewer than 10 percent of eighth graders with disabilities are proficient in reading and math based on the National Assessment of Educational Progress  (NAEP Data AND Reports 90% of students with disabilities are not proficient in reading and math, they are failing to thrive and succeed academically! 

When millions of students leave high school every year without the ability to read or do math at a high-school level, raising standards is simply not enough. Noneducators are focused on improving results and have mandated reforms that are pure tommyrot, they will never be effective in meeting the requirements of our students and do more harm. 

Teachers need great training, more autonomy, less scripted basal curricula, more pay, smaller classes, more support and zero teacher-bashing by politicians and the media. That paradigm will not change anytime soon so teachers need real information they can use. 

Teachers need real actionable data that they create, based on the student's individual academic and social-emotional needs. Using formative assessments daily is intrinsic to all teachers, yet many teachers need more training with high-quality diagnostic assessments like the Brigance comprehensive inventory of academic skills. The Brigance helps classroom teachers easily assess critical Academic Skills that supports academic success, goal planning and at the same time trains the teacher as an "educational pathologist" diagnosing and analyzing critical academic gaps that impeded students ability to thrive. The many standards and criterion based (Developmental and Academic Benchmarks) diagnostic assessments give teachers real actionable data, instructional targets and goals and objectives to help students. When teachers are given training, diagnostic tools, and the autonomy to meet the needs of their unique classroom needs students will thrive, and low or misguided expectations are replaced with high expectations that come with actionable data.

My first few years of teaching special needs students taught me the power of diagnosing academic problems using Diagnostic screens and assessments. The Brigance Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills and The Woodcock-Johnson® III Tests of Achievement are the two I was trained to use. The school also used the Success For All reading system and extensive progress monitoring protocols. My self-contained special education class included students who receive special education and related services, my class contained children with educable mental retardation (EMR), Traumatic Brain Injuries, Autism Spectrum Disorders, and unrecognized or undiagnosed comorbidity conditions. 80-90% of the students were performing above ability level and many students were reading at grade level. My students received two intensive 90 minute SFA literacy blocks every day.

The criterion-referenced CIBS II includes both a Reading/ELA Inventory and a Mathematics Inventory. The CIBS II Reading/English Language Arts (ELA) Inventory includes reading and writing assessments that correlate to commonly tested reading and ELA skills and strategies that reflect state and national standards.

SFA Progress Monitoring progression: Identify a school goal. Identify areas of concern. Establish targets. Identify root causes. Select interventions. Create a new or revised achievement plan. Evaluate results and identify future actions.

The Woodcock-Johnson® III Tests of Achievement includes 22 tests for measuring skills in reading, mathematics, and writing, as well as important oral language abilities and academic knowledge

My primary academic diagnostic tool that I still use today is the used 1999 Brigance CIBS R that I bought from I have used the information gleaned from years of testing to guide instructional planning. The knowledge gained from these diagnostic instruments and academic screening tools have been used with great success for the past16 years. 80-90% of my special education students read at or above gread level by the end of the year. Recent revisions of the Brigance academic screens and inventories have included Common Core Standards, normed and criterion assessments. Classroom teachers and parents with children with disabilities should use the easy to use diagnostic instruments and goal setting tools to help their children thrive and excel. Sean Taylor M.Ed Special Education 

Albert H. Brigance, an author, and special education resource specialist, resided in Maryville, Tennessee, USA, until his death in 2007.

In 1975-1978, Brigance created a comprehensive inventory of basic skills for his own use in his work as an assessment specialist for the California Master Plan in Humboldt and Del-Norte counties in northern California. Colleagues urged him to find a commercial publisher. The Brigance Inventory of Basic Skills became an instrument for assessment evaluation, student academic placement, Individual Educational Plans (IEPs), and instructional planning. 

All Teachers are Education Pathologist:

An Education Pathologist is a teacher who assesses, examines and discusses a student's academic and social-emotional needs, they administer and check the accuracy of academic diagnostic tests and interprets the results (Actionable Data) in order to facilitate the students' "diagnosis" and education treatment (corrective or compensatory education services). The Education Pathologist will analyze the students' academic history and look for missing skills and academic abnormalities. When corrective or compensatory education services are necessary, they will also assess and examine developmental benchmarks for gaps. The Education Pathologists interpretation of tests results that include targeted goals and objectives will help the education team identify the cause of the student's academic deficiencies. Once they’ve found the cause, they can begin treatment.


Monday, September 21, 2015

AZELLA Sample Test AZELLA English Language Proficiency Test

AZELLA Sample Practice Test | Passing the AZELLA English language proficiency Test

AZELLA: AZELLA Practice Test Grades 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 & 8 :Azella English language proficiency (ELA),
"AZELLA The Arizona English Language Learner Assessment (AZELLA) is a standards-based assessment that meets both state and federal requirements to measure students’ English language proficiency. AZELLA is used for both placement and reassessment purposes. Students who have been identified as second language learners on the Home Language Survey take the AZELLA placement test, and the students’ proficiency scores determine appropriate placement for instruction. Students who have been placed into an English language learner program will also take the AZELLA reassessment once per year until they achieve proficiency. Students who have scored proficient on the AZELLA are then monitored for two years to help ensure success after their move into a mainstream classroom."

AZELLA Blueprint (PDF)
SPEAKING Rubrics for Stages I-V (PDF)
WRITING Rubric for Stages I-V (PDF)

Stage I Sample Test

Stage I Sample Test Book (Single-Sided) (PDF)
Stage I Sample Test Book (Two-Sided) (PDF)
Stage I Teacher’s Edition (PDF)

Saturday, September 19, 2015

Building Hispanic Student Success

10 Proven Solutions for Hispanic Student Success!
  1. First things first, find out what is important to your students and
    tie their dreams and aspirations to academic success. Show them real academic success comes from a growth mindset, not teacher mendacity and inflated grades. If you want Rocket Scientist treat your students like Rocket Scientist! 
  2. Super stellar expectations and generously/exacting high standards! Teachers must believe hard that high teacher expectations will inspire and push students to believe in themselves. A daily mantra to repeat to your students, Your success requires extensive study and intense adroit/intellectual effort, you can and will reach the highest academic levels through self actualization! Your students will thrive every-time when you challenge them and believe they are capable. 
  3. Find, target and fix specific academic problems early and often that hinder academic progress using vigorous best teaching practice. Special education teachers, ELL teachers, intervention teachers and classroom teachers need to find dynamic ways to brainstorm, share and work together to help students. 
  4. Hands on, fun, real world, novel, challenging, vigorous and engaging curriculum, not canned workbooks pages, endless copies of teacher made busy work, computer curriculum and truncated one size fits all basal reading and math curriculum. 
  5. Teachers, Parents, Administrators and Students Must Grow Daily! A school Growth Mindset is the belief that academic success is based on meaningful hard work, asynchronous learning, hard and soft skills training and doggedness determination by all parties!
  6. Vision is a hallmark of leadership, students will follow a teacher through thick and thin if they believe they have a vision of success and a real path to the winners circle. When your vision is "mandated" and developed in a London or New York boardroom you will need great ambition, charm, charisma and teacher genius to lead your students to success. One size fits all fits no one! 
  7. Be very flexible and dynamic in meeting the short term and long term needs of your students. Reading Boot Camp RTI, BRIGANCE® Diagnostic. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF. BASIC SKILLS and Writing with Structure and Style (IEW) are my Tools for student successes!
  8. Creating daily asynchronous learning opportunities for all students that includes student initiated and student selected opportunities in the arts, handicrafts, music, dance, theater, sciences and imaginative play. 
  9. Success is easy when students are imaginative, motivated and curious, they must believe they are absolutely capable. Students come to school curious, motivated and ready for hard work that is fun, what we do with that creates success. 
  10. Cooperative learning, Whole Brain Teaching, flexible schedules with dynamic project based and problem based lessons that engages the students curiosity and imagination are my students secret for success. Project and problem based learning should include risk taking and opportunities to overcome failure!

Tuesday, September 15, 2015

Questions to Ask Your Child's Special Education Teacher

Special Education Success Starts With Asking Questions |

Parents of Special Needs Students Must Ask Specific Questions about their Childs Academic Performance, Social-Emotional Well-Being, and Procedures for Goal Setting, Progress Monitoring, and Reporting. Parents need to get involved at a deeper level and become experts on their child's strengths and weakness. Parents, teachers, and students must have high expectations! 95% of all labeled special education students are not challenged or pushed to meet their maximum potential! By Not Challenging Special Needs Students, What Do We Risk Losing? Thier future to thrive in a complex world.

Asking your child's special education teachers and classroom teachers proactive questions will help you and your child find success. Many topics need to be discussed yearly and asking discovery questions helps all involved stay informed and engaged. Sean D. Taylor M.Ed Special Education

Questions to Ask your Child's Special Education Teacher: 

  • What are the critical academic benchmarks for my child's grade? 
  • How do you track my child's progress, and please be very specific? 
  • Are the goals and objectives aligned to the grade level standards? 
  • Are the goals and objectives rigorous enough to help my child progress as needed and catch up? 
  • What questions should I be asking to ensure my child is successful? 
  • What are the critical academic barriers to my child's progress? 
  • What do you do when my child makes no progress or regresses? 
  • How can I help my child prepare for the next grade? 
  • How will you prepare my child for a successful transition into the next grade? 
  • How do you determine what are the appropriate goals and objectives for my child's IEP? 
  • What can I do at home to support Numeracy and Literacy at home? 

General Questions to ask Your Child's Teacher:

  • Is My Child Being Challenged?
  • Is My Child Gifted? ALL CHILDREN ARE GIFTED, whats theirs?!
  • First Things First, What Do We Need to Do Right Now to Help My Child Thrive?
  • What Techniques Are Best for Helping My Child Actively Listen? 
  • What Techniques Are Best for Helping My Child Actively Ask Questions? 
  • What Can We Do to Help My Child Get Organized? 
  • What Can We Do to Help My Child With Stress? 
  • Do You Have the Highest Expectations for My Child? 
  • Please Tell Me About Your Favorite Teaching Methods?
  • Is My Child Demonstrating a Strong Work Ethic?
  • What Can We Do to Help My Child with Areas of Need?
  • What Advice Do You Have To Help Enrich My Child's Education?
  • What Academic Goals Should We Set For My Child? 
  • What Can I Do to Help You?

Questions to Ask your Child's Teacher When Problems Arise! 

PLEASE NEVER AMBUSH THE TEACHER UNANNOUNCED! Share your concerns frankly and ask when the teacher has time to talk! Get to the heart of the matter with deep questions about your child's needs and any concerns you have.

  • May I Share What's Going on at Home?
  • How Can We Make School Fun and Real? 
  • How Can We Light a Fire and Motivate My Child?
  • How Can I Help My Child When They Get Frustrated with Homework?
  • Is My Child Happy? 
  • Is My Child Making Friends? 
  • How Is My Child Doing Socially and Emotionally?
  • How Is My Child's Focus and Concentration?
  • What Academic or Social Emotional Areas Does My Child Need to Make Improvements?
  • What Can We Do to Help My Child Get Organized? 
  • What Can We Do to Help My Child Deal With Stress? 

Parents that ask how they can help the school build a caring community and a culture of high expectations will find success.

Academic Questions For Parents! BE SPECIFIC! 

  • How is My Child Progressing in Math, Reading, Writing and Science? 
  • What Is the Best Way to Help My Child Master Their Math Facts? 
  • What Is the Best Way to Study For Spelling Test? 
  • What Is My Child's Grade Level Reading Comprehension Percentile Score? 
  • What Is My Child's Grade Level Reading Fluency Percentile Score? 
  • What Are the Math Skills My Child Needs to Master? 
Students Must Do's For Success!

Students must Actively Listen to teachers and fellow students. Active listening is a communication technique used in classrooms which requires the listener to repeat what they hear to the speaker, by way of re-stating or paraphrasing what they have heard in their own words, to confirm what they have learned and to confirm the understanding of ideas.

Students Must Ask Their Teachers Erudite Questions!

Questions to Ask Your Teachers!
  • Please Mr./Mrs./Ms, Will You Repeat The Directions Again? 
  • Please Mr./Mrs./Ms, Will You Give Me A Fun or Humorous Way To Remember This? 
  • Please Mr./Mrs./Ms, Will You Write The Directions on My Paper? 
  • Please Mr./Mrs./Ms, Will You Explain The Vocabulary In A Different Way?
  • Please Mr./Mrs./Ms, Will You Me More Time To Think? 
  • Please Mr./Mrs./Ms, Will You Give Me An Advanced Example? 
  • Please Mr./Mrs./Ms, Will You Help Me Make A Plan For Success? 
  • Please Mr./Mrs./Ms, Will You Help Me Set Goals? 
  • Please Mr./Mrs./Ms, Will You Reteach the Lesson?
  • Please Mr./Mrs./Ms, Will You Help Me Get Organized? 
  • Please Mr./Mrs./Ms, Will You Help Me Make a Checklist To Help Me Be More Responsible? 
  • Please Mr./Mrs./Ms, Will You Break Down Your Lesson Into Bite-Size Ideas? 
  • Please Mr./Mrs./Ms, Will You Write an Example on My Paper?
  • Please Mr./Mrs./Ms, Will You Tell Me More About...?
  • Please Mr./Mrs./Ms, Will You Show Me Another Way?
  • Please Mr./Mrs./Ms, Will You Give Me More Examples? 
  • Please Mr./Mrs./Ms, Will You Make or Model a Real World Example? 
  • Please Mr./Mrs./Ms, Will You Give Me a Simplified Explanation? 
  • Please Mr./Mrs./Ms, How Do I Connect This Idea To ....? 
  • Please Mr./Mrs./Ms, How Do I Learn This Process Faster? 
  • Please Mr./Mrs./Ms, What questions Should I Be Asking You? 
  • Please Mr./Mrs./Ms, Is Their a Hands on Way to Learn This?
  • Please Mr./Mrs./Ms, Why Is This Important For Me To Learn?
  • Please Mr./Mrs./Ms, Will You Show Me A Less Confusing Example?

Friday, September 11, 2015

Azmerit 3rd Grade Reading Test Practice

Pass The Azmerit 3rd Grade Move On When Reading Test

3rd Grade Azmerit Practice and Training Test | How to pass the
2015-2016 Azmerit Reading test with a meets or exceeds! Prepare and raise Azmerit reading test scores! What is the quickest way to prepare for the Azmerit Reading Test and have HIGH test scores? Students must learn the tier 2 and tier 3 academic reading vocabulary test words.
"Arizona Revised Statute 15 – 701 states that if data on the third grade statewide reading assessment is available and demonstrates that a student scored “falls far below” the student shall not be promoted from the third grade. There are two exemptions in Arizona Revised Statute 15-701. In accordance with the new law, a school district governing board or the governing body of a charter school is allowed to promote a student who earns a score of “falls far below” on the third grade statewide reading assessment only for the following reasons:"

Move On When Reading Practice Test and Reading Test Prep Vocab! 

Links to PDF Academic Test Word List
Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA)

Measure of Academic Progress (MAP RIT Charts)

The NWEA has a RIT Level MATH Sample Test that that is very helpful.

The Tennessee Academic Vocabulary Project GREAT MATH Vocabulary for Test Prep
Reading Test Sample Problems.pdf NWEA
Language Test Sample Problems.pdf NWEA
Math Sample Problems.pdf NWEA
Science Sample Problems.pdf NWEA Spiraling Math Models To Boost Numbers and Operations a Weekly Review
Top Ten Math Websites For Kids!

Links to PDF Academic Word List The Tennessee Academic Vocabulary Project
NWEA MAP Test VOCABULARY for the Web-based MAP® system
Oklahoma Academic Vocabulary Suggested Words and Terms Marzano based list

NWEA Academic Vocabulary
NWEA Academic Vocabulary
NWEA Reading Test Questions
CST and CAHSEE Academic Vocabulary
Academic Vocabulary At a Glance – New Vocabulary Words by RIT Bands for Reading
ISAT Reading Vocabulary List (Word) doc

ISAT Language Usage Vocabulary List (Word)
ISAT Math Vocabulary List (Word)

Academic Tier 3 Mathematics Glossary
PDF Word
Mr. Taylor's Kid Friendly Academic Testing Vocabulary Review 

Third Grade Test Vocabulary 

atlas | A book of maps or a book of tables, charts, pictures on one subject. Mr. Taylor has a world atlas in his classroom.

abbreviation | A shorter form of a word or phrase, i.e. AZ for Arizona. The abbreviation for the United States of America is U.S.A.

adverb | A word that modifies a verb by identifying time, place, speed, etc. Quickly is an adverb in the sentence "Jose quickly finished his homework. "

antonyms | A word opposite in meaning to another word. Cold is the antonym of hot.

apostrophe | The mark used to show a letter or letters have been left out of a word or phrase or to show ownership. Example of letters left out: You've is short for "you have" and an apostrophe shows that "have" is missing two letters.
Example of ownership: Mr. Taylor's class reads several books each year.
Example of ownership: The apostrophe in the sentence "Mr. Taylor's class reads several books each year." shows the class belongs to Mr. Taylor.

bias | One meaning of "bias" is to like or dislike one thing over another. Claudia has bias for chocolate over all other candy.

chronological order | To arrange events in the order they occurred. In chronological order, our class has computer lab on Monday, music on Tuesday, gym on Wednesday, library on Thursday, and art on Friday.

complete sentence | A complete sentence includes at least a subject and a verb. "Claudia ran." is a complete sentence.

context clues | Words, phrases or sentences around a new word that helps the reader make a logical guess about the meaning of the new word. Use context clues to figure out what a new word means.

contraction | A word or phrase shortened by leaving out one or more letters or sounds. "You'll" is the contraction of "you will."

compound word | A compound word is made when two words are joined to form a new word.
The words "shoe" and "string" are joined to form the compound word "Shoestring."

biography | The history of a persons life. If you become famous, someone will write your biography.

describe | To tell or write about something. Please describe your backpack.

declarative | A sentence that makes a statement. "The earth is round." is a declarative sentence.

dictionary | A book of alphabetically listed words with their meanings and other information. Students need a dictionary when they go to college.

exclamatory | A sudden, angry outcry; to cry out; shout; or speak suddenly in surprise, etc. "Lillian, be quiet! shouted her mother is an exclamatory phrase.

fact | Something that really happened; truth; actuality; things as they exist. It is a fact that the moon revolves around the earth.

fairy tale | A fairy tale is a type of short story with fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, dwarves, giants or gnomes, and usually magic or enchantments. The story "Jack and the Beanstalk" is a fairy tale.

folk tale | A story or legend originating and traditional among a group of people (folk = people), especially one forming part of the spoken tradition of the everyday people. The stories about Paul Bunyan and Babe the Blue Ox are folk tales.

interrogative | Asking a question. "Do you like chocolate ice cream?" is an interrogative.

index | One meaning of "index" is an alphabetical list of names, subjects, etc., together with page numbers where they can be found--usually placed at the end of a book.  In this book, the index says there is information about the moon on pages 31 and 73.

instructions | Education; teaching; lessons or a list of steps to be followed to complete an assignment.
(1) Every teacher at Rio Vista gives instructions to their students. (2) It is hard to use a TV remote without reading the instructions.

main characteristics | The most important things that identify a person, plant, object--or anything in the universe. The main characteristics of most cars are four wheels, a body where the driver and passengers sit, a steering wheel, an engine, and headlights and taillights.

nonfiction | Books and stories which only include real people, animals, plants, science, events, etc.
A book about birds in Tucson is a nonfiction book.

main idea | The main idea of a passage or reading is the the most important thought or message. (In contrast to the term topic, which refers to the subject under discussion.) The main idea of Mr. Taylor's instructions is that it is important to follow directions.

multi-meaning words | Words which have more than one meaning. Multi-meaning words will have the different meanings listed and numbered (1, 2, 3, etc.) in the dictionary.

opinion | A person's belief based on what seems true, or probable; a person's judgment. Many people have the opinion that French cooking is the best in the world.

organization | A group of persons organized for some specific purpose, such as a club, business, team, etc.
The Rio Vista band is an organization of students with an interest in music.

personal narrative | A story that tells a story based on a personal experience of the writer.
Jasmine wrote a personal narrative about a trip to visit her grandmother.

plural | More than one of something. The plural of bone is bones.

plot | The arrangement of the main events in a book, story, poem, or film, also known as the "story line."
The plot of most mysteries starts with a murder.

point of view | A way of viewing things; an attitude or the position from which something is observed or considered; a standpoint.  It is Mr. Taylor's point of view that students must be held responsible for completing their work.

possessive | The form of a word that shows ownership.  The possessive form of John is John's. For example, to say John owns the airplane, you would say "It is John's airplane."

predicate | In a sentence, the verb (action word) or the verb and words that describe the verb.
"Runs fast" is the predicate in the sentence "Magaly runs fast."

prefix | A prefix is placed at the beginning of a word to change its meaning. In the word "unhappy," "un-" is the prefix.

prefixes | Prefixes are placed at the beginning of words to change their meanings. The prefixes we will see often are "pre-" (before), "post-" (after), "un-" (opposite of), "anti-"(against), "hemi-" (half), "non-" (absence of), "out-" (exceeding), "trans-" (across), etc. The sentence "John was unhappy in preschool" has two prefixes.

punctuation (commas) | Special marks in sentences or phrases that make the sentences or phrases easier to understand. Some common punctuation marks are: .  ,  '  ;  ?  !
The comma ( , ) tells where to pause or take a breath.

root word | A word that can start to build the meaning of many words. "Corn" is the root word of : popcorn; cornflower; cornmeal; cornbread; and cornmeal: all the words mean something about corn.

run-on sentence | A run-on sentence is a sentence in which two or more independent clauses (i.e., complete sentences) are joined without appropriate punctuation ( ; ) or a conjunction (and, for, nor, but, or, yet and so). "Sydney and Sabrina were in the band Sydney played the saxophone Sabrina played percussion" is an example of  three run-on sentences.

introduction | The introduction is at the beginning of a story and it tells you what the main idea(s) will be; it lets you  "meet" the main idea. An introduction to your teacher lets you meet.

singular | In grammar, the form of a word that says there is only one of something. In the sentence "There was only one Juliana in the class, but there were two Gabriels," Juliana is singular and Gabriels is plural.

sign | The word "sign" has many meanings. Among them are: to write your name (signature); a symbol with a specific meaning ( $ meaning dollars); and hand gestures that give information (sign language). When you vote in any election, you have to sign your name.

story elements (character, setting, plot) | The who, what, where and why--the parts that make up a story.
In Harry Potter, the main characters are Harry, Hermione, and Ron; the setting is Castle Hogwarts; and the plot is to learn to be wizards and keep Harry safe from Voldemort.

schedule | The way things are planned to happen in our lives, schools, or work. Sometimes Mr. Taylor's class schedules a trip to the gem and mineral show in February.

subject | The person, place or thing that does the action in a sentence. In the sentence "Michael finished his report before lunch," "Michael" is the subject, and "finished" is the action (verb).

suffixes | Letters or syllables added to the end of a word to change its meaning. Suffixes such as "-ish" and "-er" can be added to the word "small" to change its meaning to smallish and smaller.

summarize | To state briefly; to shorten to its most important parts.  Mr. Taylor asked us to summarize the first chapter of Harry Potter and the Sorcer's Stone.

supporting details | They come after the topic sentence, making up the body of a paragraph. What do they do? They give details to develop and help the reader better understand the topic sentence (main idea).
If your topic sentence is "Harry Potter has a special wand," you could add supporting details about the wand, such as where he got it, what it's made of, and why it's a special wand.

synonyms | Different words that have the same meaning. Synonyms of "bend" are curve and twist.

verb (types and functions) | A word that in a sentence that  tells you the action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), or a state of being (be, exist, stand). In the sentence "Anthony ran his race and is now standing next to the track," "ran" (the action) and "standing" (state of being) are both verbs.

Fourth Grade

acronym | A word that is made by putting together parts of other words. The word "radar" is an acronym that was built from "radio detecting and ranging" ( "ra  + d  +  a  +  r" ).

adjective | A word or phrase that  modifies (describes) a noun. The word "brilliant" is an adjective in the sentence "Yatzari is a brilliant student".  "Brilliant" describes the noun "student".

adverb | A word that Modifies (describes) a verb. "Suddenly" is an adverb in the sentence "Anthony suddenly remembered his homework assignment".  "Suddenly" describes the verb "remembered."

almanac | A book that gives useful information about a particular subject;  sometimes published  in a month-by-month order. For example, a gardening almanac might tell when to plant different flowers and vegetables.

analogy | A phrase or sentence that shows how different things may be alike in some ways.
"A human heart is like a pump" is an analogy.  The heart and pump are alike in one way:  they each pump something.

anthology | A book that is a collection of different writers' works (essays, stories,  poems, etc.).
"Mr. Taylor had so many interesting stories to tell.  One day he was going to publish his collection as 'An Artist's Anthology.' "

antonym | A word that has an opposite meaning. An antonym of  "hot"  is  "cold";  an antonym of  "fast"  is  "slow".

aphorism | A short, clear, wise statement that tells an opinion or a saying that many people believe is true.
An aphorism about a famous musician is the sentence "Irving Berlin has no place in American music - he IS American music."

audience (as listeners and readers) | A group of people that gather to see or hear a performance  -  when the performance is an "out-loud" reading, the performers are the readers and the audience are the listeners.
For example:  "Mr. Taylor and Maria were taking turns reading 'The Chamber of Secrets' to the class.  The audience was very quiet as the readers reached a scary part of the story."

author's purpose | The reason for writing  - to inform, to question, to entertain. "Fernando worked hard on his first prompt.  His author's purpose was to entertain his readers with his funny story."

autobiography | The story of someone's life, written by that person. "Mr. Taylor had given the students their first assignment of the year:  a one-page autobiography."

bibliography | A list of the books and materials consulted;  appearing at the end of the text. "Leslie was sure to include her bibliography at the end of her science report."

brochure | A booklet or pamphlet that describes a subject; often an advertisement. "Mrs. Kuhn carefully read the brochure that announced the opening of the  University Science Fair."

caption | A short description or title of an illustration in a text. "Gloria had written the caption  ' What I Want to be When I Grow Up ' under her drawing of a jet pilot ."

category | A set of things that are grouped together because they have something in common.
"Eric had lots of homework to do.  Which category would he start with?  Reading, Writing, Science, Math ...? "

cause/effect characteristics | Cause is the action that makes something happen;  Effect is the something that happens. "Sarah knocked over a glass of water onto her homework pages.  Knocking over the glass was the cause of soaking her homework.  Wet homework was the effect  of knocking over the glass."

conclusion | The part that brings something to an end  OR a decision that is made after looking at all the facts. "Andrew thought the conclusion of ‘Harry Potter and The Chamber of Secrets‘ was really exciting!"
"After much thought, Anthony came to the conclusion that  the answer to  the long division problem  was '286'  "

conjunction | A connecting word that links sentences or words ("and",  "or",  "if",  "but" ...). "David and Jose wanted to talk to Gage or Sam before school, but the bus was late." Conjunctions in this sentence were "and",  "or",  and "but".

contest | An organized test among entrants to find out which is best at doing something. "On Tuesday there was a contest between the two fourth grades to see which class was best at playing cricket."

conversation |  A  talk with someone. "Mrs. Kuhn would have a conversation with the "Wheels in Motion" people to learn whether their contest would come to Rio Vista this year."

diary | A book of a person's daily happenings and thoughts. "George Washington's diary was full of interesting things that happened before the United States became a nation."

double negatives |  Using two negative forms together in a phrase or sentence;  not good English.
"I won't never use double negatives when I write a story!"

drama | Works written for performance on stage, television, or radio;  usually serious subjects and manner of performance.  Sometimes anything that is not a comedy is called a drama. The book “Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire” was dramatized into a movie.

drawing conclusions | Reaching a conclusion, or a final decision, about something. "After Mr. Taylor sees the results of the test, he will be drawing conclusions on  on the next homework assignment."

encyclopedia | A reference book or set of books giving much information on all areas or specialized areas of knowledge. "Jade, did you find 'Mount St. Helens' in the encyclopedia?"

fable | A make-believe short story that teaches a moral, especially with animals as characters.  In the fable “The Tales of Peter Rabbit“, a young rabbit has adventures and learns about the world.

genre | A category of artistic works, based on form, style or subject matter. For example, a detective novel is a genre of fiction.

index....Copied from 3rd and 5th

noun | A word (or group of words) that names a person, place, or thing. The sentence "Ellie quickly gathered up her books to fill her backpack ," contains three nouns.

making inferences | Reaching a conclusion or decision from facts and reasoning. "Hector and Alexis were making inferences on the cost of their field trip by adding up their lunch expenses."

metaphor...Copied from 3rd and 5th

myth...Copied from 3rd and 5th

outline | A rough plan of a written work or speech; a list of main points or features to be covered.
"Mr. Taylor's drew an outline of his chapter on the smart board."

possessive nouns | Persons, places, or things that show ownership. In the sentence "Sally’s car is with yellow stripes,"  the possessive noun is  "Sally's" .

preposition | A relation or function word  that connects a noun or pronoun to another part of a sentence ( "in", "by", "for", to", etc.). In the sentence "Steven hit the ball and ran for first base,"  the word "for" is a preposition that joins "first base" to the rest of the sentence.

pronoun | A word that may be substituted for a noun ("I", "you", "them", "who", "ours", "he", "she", "anybody", etc.). "Adriana has been working hard on long division, and it has been worth the effort because she scored high on her math test!"  The three pronouns in this sentence are "it",  "she",  and "her".

proofread | To check written work for errors and mark the changes to be made. "Pedro just needed to proofread and correct his 'Read and Response' chapter, and he would be finished."

sentence fragment | Words that do not form a complete sentence of subject and verb. "Mr. Taylor for the first time." is a sentence fragment because it has no verb.

simple predicate | The verb or action word of a sentence or phrase, without words that modify the verb.
"Ran" is the simple predicate of the sentence "Monique expertly ran the cotton candy booth for the Rio Vista's Fantasy Fair."

simile | A figure of speech that compares two different things (often with "as" or "like"). "Red as a beet" is a simile in the sentence "Tim's face was red as a beet."

simple subject | The subject of the verb of a sentence, without words that modify the subject.
In the sentence "The shiny spotted horse frisked around the pasture," the word "horse" is the simple subject.

synonym | A word that means the same, or almost the same, as another word. The word "scholar"  is a synonym for "student".

tall tale | A story with characters or happenings that are exaggerated or made bigger than real life.
"Pecos Bill" is a tall tale of a cowboy who could  do unbelievable  things, like rope a tornado with his lariat.

thesaurus"...Copied from 3rd and 5th

title page (parts of) | A title page is a page at the beginning of a book that gives the book’s title, the author, and the publisher.  The title, “HARRY POTTER AND THE SORCERER’S STONE”; the author, “J.K. ROWLING”; and the publisher, “Arthur A. Levine Books” all appear on the title page for the first Harry Potter book.

 verb tense | The form of a verb that shows not only the action, but when the action happens  (in the past, present, or future).  In the sentence “ Mr. Taylor’s class will leave for lunch in 15 minutes”, the verb tense is future;  In the sentence “The class is leaving now”, the verb tense is present In the sentence “The class left,”  the verb tense is past.

Fifth Grade Reading and Language Arts Academic Vocabulary
Common Core State Standards: Tier 3 Vocabulary

alliteration | Repeating the same sounds at the beginning of words for two or more words in a row.
Many men may meet monthly. Girls gladly go gliding.

caption (identify) | A title, short explanation, or description accompanying an drawing or a photograph, or words on the bottom of television or movie. The caption under the picture read: "Mr. Taylor's 4th grade, 2011-12."

comparative | A form of an adjective or adverb which compares one thing to another. He is taller than his father. There is less water in Arizona than in Louisiana.

coordinating conjunctions | Coordinating conjunctions connect words, phrases, and clauses. The bowl of cereal is hot and delicious. (The coordinating conjunction is "and.")

excerpt | A passage, quotation, or segment taken from a longer work, such as a literary or musical composition, a document, or a film. Mr. Taylor's Eclectic Spelling Book has excerpts from many books and poems.

fiction | Books and stories that come from the imagination of the writer. Novels, short stories, detective mysteries and science fiction are fiction.

foreshadowing | Foreshadowing is the use of hints or clues to suggest what will happen later in the story.
There are many examples of foreshadowing in Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone.

glossary | A list at the back of a book that explains or defines difficult or unusual words and expressions used in the book. Nearly all the science books used at Rio Vista have a glossary in the back.

graphic organizer | A graphic organizer is a  you can use to help you plan what you're going to write.
Mr. Taylor does everything he can to get students to organize their thoughts using a graphic organizer before they start a writing.

homonym (also called a homophone) | Words that are spelled and pronounced the same way, but have different meanings. The metal lead and the verb lead are homonyms.

hyperbole | Extreme exaggeration or overstatement, especially in written work. Adalberto used hyperbole when he told the class the fish he caught was big as a shark.

idiom | An accepted expression in a given language that is not grammatically standard or cannot be understood from the meanings of its individual constituents. She heard is straight from the horse's mouth is an example of an idiom.

interjections | Words, exclamations or phrases inserted into a sentence, often expressing an emotion.

introductory paragraph | The first paragraph of an article or student writing should be attention grabbing and make the reader want to finish the article or story. The introductory paragraph of an article on polar bears might get your attention by telling you that the estimated number of polar bears has grown from 5,000 to 25,000 between the 1950 and 2000.

labels | Descriptive words applied to  persons, groups or objects.  Rio Vista Elementary School includes two labelsElementary School tells you the level of the school; and Rio Vista is the name of a particular school.

magazine | A publication, generally published on a regular schedule (weekly, twice-monthly, monthly, etc.)
Time is a news magazine that has been published weekly for about 80 years.

main point | The most important idea in a piece of writing. a speech or a lecture. The main point in Mr. Taylor's lecture was that students will be held responsible for completing their assignments.

moral | A moral is the lesson (don't steal, don't cheat, be nice, etc.) to be learned from a story or event.
One moral in the Aesop's fable of the Tortoise and the Hare is that "slow and steady wins the race."

myth |  A traditional story that tries to explain nature (origin of man, disease, volcanoes, storms, floods, etc.) in which the main characters are gods and heroes. In one Greek myth Zeus, the most powerful god, was afraid his wife Metis would give birth to a god more powerful than he was, so he swallowed Metis.

main idea/stated and implied | The main idea is the most important point in a piece of writing or a lecture. The main idea can be clearly explained (i.e., stated), or hinted at (i.e., implied).
The main idea of Mr. Taylor's Reading Boot Camp is stated to be improving student reading abilities so they can read to learn.

metaphor | A metaphor is a figure of speech that uses an image or story represent an idea or quality.
Her eyes were glistening jewels is a metaphor.

narrative | A narrative is a story that describes a series of fictional or non-fictional events. Yatzari's narrative of her experience on the roller coaster held our attention.

narrator | The character within a story who tells the story, or a person who tells the story to an audience.
Alivia was the narrator for the 4th grade class play.

news | Current events presented on TV, the internet, twitter, in newspapers or magazines, or shared by word of mouth. More people get their news from TV and the internet than from newspapers.

novel | A novel is a long, fictional story. Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone is a novel.

onomatopoeia | A word that imitates the sound it describes. Cuckoo, hiccup, zoom, bang, beep, splash and vroom are examples of  onomatopoeia.

parts of speech | In grammar, categories of words. Nouns and verbs are parts of speech.

personification | Giving animals, objects or concepts human characteristics. Cartoon animal characters who talk and act like humans are examples of personification.

persuade | Convincing yourself or another to adopt an idea, attitude, or action using logic. Sydney tried to persuade Frida to join the Rio Vista band.

persuasion | A process of guiding another person to adopt an idea, attitude, or action using logic.
Isaac tried using persuasion to get Hector to play soccer.

purpose | Purpose is a result, end, aim or goal of an action. The purpose of flash cards is to learn words by reading them over and over.

plot | The order of events in a story.  The plot of a novel or story deals with what happens to the main character.

point of view/perspective | Writer's (or your) view of the world consisting of opinions, beliefs and experiences. It is Mr. Taylor's point of view/perspective that reading boot camp will improve your reading ability.

prompt | In a writing assignment, the subject you are told to write about.
"What I did during my summer vacation" used to be a common prompt the first day of a new school year.

punctuation marks (colon/semi-colon) | Colon is the punctuation mark (:used before a long quotation, explanation, example, or list of items. A semi-colon (;) is a punctuation mark used most often to separate closely related clauses in a sentence. Mr. Taylor expects at least three things from his students: 1) their attention; 2) completion of assignments; and 3) respect for other members of the class.

reference source | A source of information, the most common of which are: a dictionary; an atlas; a thesaurus; the internet, etc. One reference source for my science project was the Encyclopedia Americana.

reference book | A source of information in book form, such as a dictionary, encyclopedia, atlas or thesaurus. The best reference book for finding synonyms is the thesaurus.

reports | To give information (usually written or spoken) about something (person, place, thing, theory, etc.) to other people. Our science reports are due in the spring.

resolution | Resolution has many meanings, one of which is to set a personal goal. Mr. Jones' New Year's resolution was to run a mile every day this year.

resource | In education, a resource is something or someone that helps you learn. The smart board is a resource that Mr. Taylor uses to get excited about learning. 

root words ( as aids in determining meaning) | The basic word upon which other words are formed.
The meaning of new words can often be determined by identifying the root word
The root word of saddlery is saddle, so I can guess that saddlery has something to do with saddles.

rhythm | A regularly occurring physical motion or pattern of speech. Many poems have an interesting rhythm.

satire | A method of criticizing people  in which you make fun of their bad habits, abuses and shortcomings--usually with the goal of shaming them into improving. Punch was a famous British humor magazine which used a great deal of satire.

simile | A simile is a figure of speech that directly compares two different things, usually by using the words "like," "as," or "than." Christian seemed to run as fast as a speeding bullet.

stanza | In a poem, a grouping of lines set off by a space.
Here are two stanzas of a poem:

            Mary had a little lamb,
            little lamb, little lamb,
            Mary had a little lamb,
            whose fleece was white as snow.

            And everywhere that Mary went,
            Mary went, Mary went,
            and everywhere that Mary went,
            the lamb was sure to go.

summarize | To state briefly.  We summarize the main idea of each chapter in our writing journals.

summary | A brief statement or account covering the main idea. Each chapter summary in our writing journal must include at least five sentences.

superlative | Superior to or better than all others, of highest quality or supreme, usually a using a word ending in -est. Mt. McKinley (Denali) is the highest mountain in North America.

thesaurus | A reference containing synonyms and antonyms. The thesaurus says synonyms for small include petite, little , wee, tiny and teeny.


mostly | Almost; for the most part; nearly. My homework is mostly done.

mainly | For the most part; chiefly; primarily. The band's members are mainly girls.

different | Not alike; dissimilar; not identical. I didn't recognize her at first because her hair was so different.

based | The bottom support of anything; foundation; basis. He based his answer on the dictionary definition.

chronological order | The listing of things by some characteristic, eg., first letter; size, color, age.
The student names were listed in alphabetical order.

paragraph | The portion of written matter dealing with one idea, usually beginning with an indentation on a
new line. The paragraph had an excellent topic sentence.

routine | Regular; typical or everyday activity. Singing is part of the routine in Mr. Taylor's class.
speaker/s | A person who talks or is talking.  Mrs. Kuhn was the speaker at the school assembly.

most likely | Best chance of happening; highest probability. If you don't do your homework, you will most likely get into trouble in Mr. Taylor's class.

lesson | Something to be learned or studied; part of a book, an exercise, etc., assigned for study.
The math lesson for today is long division.

suggest | To propose an idea for consideration. Please suggest methods for encouraging students to do their homework.

comparison | Likening; reviewing similarities. There is no comparison between driving and flying to New York.

describe/s | To tell about; to list important characteristics; to draw a picture to represent something.
Please describe Rio Vista Elementary School.

purpose | The reason for doing something; the reason something exists or is done, made, used, etc.
The purpose for homework is to give students practice in reading, writing, and arithmetic.

selection | A person or thing that has been chosen. Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone is one book selection for Mr. Taylor's class.

according | Agreeing. Pluto is no longer a planet, according to a new definition.

event/s | Something that happens; an occurrence, especially one of importance. The Science Fair is a big event at Rio Vista Elementary School.

section | A part that is cut off or separated; a part of a book or newspaper. I like to read the sports section in the newspaper.

statement/s | Setting forth facts, etc., in a speech or writing; a single sentence or assertion. Mrs. Kuhn issued a statement about the school performance at the last fire drill.

main idea | The most important thought of a paragraph, article, or larger written work. The topic sentence expresses the main idea in a paragraph.

compare | To look at two or more objects to see how they are alike and different. Mr. Taylor asked the class to compare Arizona and New Mexico.

contrast | To identify the differences between two or more things. Mr. Taylor asked the class to contrast the Harry Potter and Malfoy characters.

greatest | Used to identify the best of three or more objects, people, etc. The University of Kansas beat Kentucky and was the greatest college basketball team in 2012.

description | A statement, picture in words, or account that tells us how something looks, sounds, smells, thinks, etc. Jose gave a description of the speeding car to the police.

considered | Thought about or decided upon with care. Louis considered whether or not to have a soda with his lunch.

organized | To put things in order; people in a group with structure, e.g., a union or sports team.
It's easier to find something in an organized backpack than one with everything thrown in.

organizes | To put in order; to put individual items into some order. Mr. Taylor organizes his class by assigning tables.

reason | A basis or cause for some belief, action, event, etc. The reason given most often for not having a journal in class is that it was left in a car.

provided | On the condition or understanding; often with that. You will avoid problems in Mr. Taylor's class, provided you do your homework and behave in class.

preventing | To keep from happening; to stop. Preventing war is the goal of many people.

represent | To stand for; to present a picture to the mind. A student was chosen to represent the class in the school council.

decides | Chooses; settles. My mother decides what we're going to have for dinner.

theme | The subject of a composition; a short essay; the main idea or topic. The importance of graduating from high school was the theme of of the TV show.

presented | The past tense of present; to give; to hand over. Winners of sports tournaments are usually presented with trophies.

phrases | Two or more words in a sentence which act together as a unit. Long sentences contain several phrases.

Turning point | The place in a story where a decisive change occurs; a change of direction. The turning point in the story was the car accident.

examples | Single items that represent a group of similar items; a pattern or model. There are several examples of good behavior in Mr. Taylor's class.

predict/ed | To foretell the future; declare of tell in advance. Many basketball fans predicted that Kentucky would win the NCAA basketball tournament.

cause | The reason something happens; the reason for an action. You can cause a forest fire if you don't make certain your camp fire is out.

effect | Result; to produce results. We do not know how much effect that CO2 produced by man has on the climate.

differ | To be unlike; to disagree in opinion or belief. Students often differ with the grades they've been given.

article | A piece of writing about a specific topic; an individual item. Mr. Taylor asked the class to write an article about the University of Arizona farm across from the school.

summary | A shortened version of a book, article, or paragraph which includes only the most important

ideas | We have to write a summary about the main idea for each chapter in the book we are reading.

diagram | Usually a line drawing to illustrate a mathematical idea, or to explain the parts or operation of something. A diagram usually helps explain the answer to a science problem.

instructions | Orders; directions; passing on knowledge or information. Mr. Taylor has given instructions many times on the required Read and Response format.

directions | Instructions; the path to follow; steps to complete a project. Many students do not follow the science report directions.

probably | Likely; more likely than not. If you do not do your homework, Mr. Taylor will probably talk to your parents.

detail | A small, individual part; an item. Responses in Mr. Taylor's class must include a topic sentence and five sentences with detail about the topic sentence.

supports | Holds up; justifies; provides a foundation for. Mr. Taylor supports reading improvement by assigning challenging books to his class.

term | A work or group of words naming something; a division of the school year. There is a Latin term for each part of the human body.

definition | A statement of the meaning of a word or phrase. You sometimes have to use the Oxford English Dictionary to find the definition of a word.

closely | Near; close by. The students closely followed each other out of the classroom when the fire alarm rang. 

Article From Wiki

The Academic Word List (AWL) was developed by Averil Coxhead at the School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. The list contains 570 word families which were selected because they appear with great frequency in a broad range of academic texts. The list does not include words that are in the most frequent 2000 words of English (the General Service List), thus making it specific to academic contexts. The AWL was primarily made so that it could be used by teachers as part of a programme preparing learners for tertiary level study or used by students working alone to learn the words most needed to study at colleges and universities. The 570 words are divided into 10 sublists. The sublists are ordered such that the words in the first sublist are the most frequent words and those in the last sublist are the least frequent.

Academic Vocabulary Word List

Sublist 1
sector • available • financial • process • individual • specific • principle • estimate • variables • method • data • research • contract • environment • export • source • assessment • policy • identified • create • derived • factors • procedure • definition • assume • theory • benefit • evidence • established • authority • major • issues • labour • occur • economic • involved • percent • interpretation • consistent • income • structure • legal • concept • formula • section • required • constitutional • analysis • distribution • function • area • approach • role • legislation • indicate • response • period • context • significant • similar •

Sublist 2
community • resident • range • construction • strategies • elements • previous • conclusion • security • aspects • acquisition • features • text • commission • regulations • computer • items • consumer • achieve • final • positive • evaluation • assistance • normal • relevant • distinction • region • traditional • impact • consequences • chapter • equation • appropriate • resources • participation • survey • potential • cultural • transfer • select • credit • affect • categories • perceived • sought • focus • purchase • injury • site • journal • primary • complex • institute • investment • administration • maintenance • design • obtained • restricted • conduct •

Sublist 3
comments • convention • published • framework • implies • negative • dominant • illustrated • outcomes • constant • shift • deduction • ensure • specified • justification • funds • reliance • physical • partnership • location • link • coordination • alternative • initial • validity • task • techniques • excluded • consent • proportion • demonstrate • reaction • criteria • minorities • technology • philosophy • removed • sex • compensation • sequence • corresponding • maximum • circumstances • instance • considerable • sufficient • corporate • interaction • contribution • immigration • component • constraints • technical • emphasis • scheme • layer • volume • document • registered • core •

Sublist 4
overall • emerged • regime • implementation • project • hence • occupational • internal • goals • retained • sum • integration • mechanism • parallel • imposed • despite • job • parameters • approximate • label • concentration • principal • series • predicted • summary • attitudes • undertaken • cycle • communication • ethnic • hypothesis • professional • status • conference • attributed • annual • obvious • error • implications • apparent • commitment • subsequent • debate • dimensions • promote • statistics • option • domestic • output • access • code • investigation • phase • prior • granted • stress • civil • contrast • resolution • adequate •

Sublist 5
alter • stability • energy • aware • licence • enforcement • draft • styles • precise • medical • pursue • symbolic • marginal • capacity • generation • exposure • decline • academic • modified • external • psychology • fundamental • adjustment • ratio • whereas • enable • version • perspective • contact • network • facilitate • welfare • transition • amendment • logic • rejected • expansion • clause • prime • target • objective • sustainable • equivalent • liberal • notion • substitution • generated • trend • revenue • compounds • evolution • conflict • image • discretion • entities • orientation • consultation • mental • monitoring • challenge •
Sublist 6
intelligence • transformation • presumption • acknowledged • utility • furthermore • accurate • diversity • attached • recovery • assigned • tapes • motivation • bond • edition • nevertheless • transport • cited • fees • scope • enhanced • incorporated • instructions • subsidiary • input • abstract • ministry • capable • expert • preceding • display • incentive • inhibition • trace • ignored • incidence • estate • cooperative • revealed • index • lecture • discrimination • overseas • explicit • aggregate • gender • underlying • brief • domain • rational • minimum • interval • neutral • migration • flexibility • federal • author • initiatives • allocation • exceed •

Sublist 7
intervention • confirmed • definite • classical • chemical • voluntary • release • visible • finite • publication • channel • file • thesis • equipment • disposal • solely • deny • identical • submitted • grade • phenomenon • paradigm • ultimately • extract • survive • converted • transmission • global • inferred • guarantee • advocate • dynamic • simulation • topic • insert • reverse • decades • comprise • hierarchical • unique • comprehensive • couple • mode • differentiation • eliminate • priority • empirical • ideology • somewhat • aid • foundation • adults • adaptation • quotation • contrary • media • successive • innovation • prohibited • isolated •

Sublist 8
highlighted • eventually • inspection • termination • displacement • arbitrary • reinforced • denote • offset • exploitation • detected • abandon • random • revision • virtually • uniform • predominantly • thereby • implicit • tension • ambiguous • vehicle • clarity • conformity • contemporary • automatically • accumulation • appendix • widespread • infrastructure • deviation • fluctuations • restore • guidelines • commodity • minimises • practitioners • radical • plus • visual • chart • appreciation • prospect • dramatic • contradiction • currency • inevitably • complement • accompany • paragraph • induced • schedule • intensity • crucial • via • exhibit • bias • manipulation • theme • nuclear •

Sublist 9
bulk • behalf • unified • commenced • erosion • anticipated • minimal • ceases • vision • mutual • norms • intermediate • manual • supplementary • incompatible • concurrent • ethical • preliminary • integral • conversely • relaxed • confined • accommodation • temporary • distorted • passive • subordinate • analogous • military • scenario • revolution • diminished • coherence • suspended • mature • assurance • rigid • controversy • sphere • mediation • format • trigger • qualitative • portion • medium • coincide • violation • device • insights • refine • devoted • team • overlap • attained • restraints • inherent • route • protocol • founded • duration •

Sublist 10
whereby • inclination • encountered • convinced • assembly • albeit • enormous • reluctant • posed • persistent • undergo • notwithstanding • straightforward • panel • odd • intrinsic • compiled • adjacent • integrity • forthcoming • conceived • ongoing • so-called • likewise • nonetheless • levy • invoked • colleagues • depression • collapse •
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Grade 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 MCAS ELA Reading & Math Test Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System

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