Second language learners may have difficulty
distinguishing (auditory discrimination) between different letter sounds (Phonemes) in words due to a lack of exposure or instruction; they may develop reading difficulties without a strong phonemic awareness. Preschool and primary teachers that teach second language learners can start exposing students to rich auditory discrimination activities in the form of engaging games. Difficulty in learning the sounds of letters (In alphabetic writing systems) can be a precursor to dyslexia.
Level 2 – Discriminating between different words in speech
Level 3 – Discriminating syllables in words
Level 4 – Discriminating rhyming words
Level 5 – Discriminating individual sounds in words
Bounce and Stretch Letters Formation
Auditory Processing – A Breakdown of Skills
Phonics Floor Game:Short Vowels
Letter Recognition Alphabet Games
Letter Recognition Word Games
FREE Phonics and Phonemic Awareness Charts: 44 English Phonemes Chart
English Alphabetic Code - picture chart
The 44 English Phonemes chart
The 44 Sounds (Phonemes) of English
Free Phonics Primer Doc.
LESSON IThe Sounds of English
Consonants: stretch Consonants: bounce
Foundation for Phonics 26 Letters (minus 3 superfluous letters, c, q, x) for 44 Sounds
Instructional level | K-12 Phonological Awareness, Phonics and Reading Comprehension
Basic Phonics Placement Assessment
Advanced Phonics Placement Assessment
CORE Phonics Survey
Quick Phonics Screener (QPS)
Phonics Survey | Phonics Skills Profile
Vowel Sounds Phonics Assessment
Chart is from: http://www.lancsngfl.ac.uk/curriculum/literacy/lit_site/lit_sites/phonemes_001/
Phonemic awareness and phonological awareness are often confused since they are interdependent. Phonemic awareness is the ability to hear and manipulate individual phonemes. Phonological awareness includes this ability, but it also includes the ability to hear and manipulate larger units of sound, such as onsets and rimes and syllables.
Studies by Vickie Snider from The Journal of Education have shown that phonemic awareness has a direct correlation with students’ ability to read as they get older. Phonemic awareness builds a foundation for students to understand the rules of the English language. This in turn allows each student to apply these skills and increase his or her oral reading fluency and understanding of the text.
Phonemic awareness relates to the ability to distinguish and manipulate individual sounds, such as /f/, /ʊ/, and /t/ in the case of foot. The following are common phonemic awareness skills practiced with students:
- Phoneme isolation: which requires recognizing the individual sounds in words, for example, "Tell me the first sound you hear in the word paste" (/p/).
- Phoneme identity: which requires recognizing the common sound in different words, for example, "Tell me the sound that is the same in bike, boy and bell" (/b/).
- Phoneme substitution: in which one can turn a word (such as "cat") into another (such as "hat") by substituting one phoneme (such as /h/) for another (/k/). Phoneme substitution can take place for initial sounds (cat-hat), middle sounds (cat-cut) or ending sounds (cat-can).
- Oral segmenting: The teacher says a word, for example, "ball," and students say the individual sounds, /b/, /ɑ/, and /l/.
- Oral blending: The teacher says each sound, for example, "/b/, /ɑ/, /l/" and students respond with the word, "ball."
- Sound deletion: The teacher says word, for example, "bill," has students repeat it, and then instructs students to repeat the word without a sound.
- Onset-rime manipulation: which requires isolation, identification, segmentation, blending, or deletion of onsets (the single consonant or blend that precedes the vowel and following consonants), for example, j-ump, st-op, str-ong.