CCSS ELA: Tier 2 & Tier 3 Academic Vocabulary
Tier 1 Academic Vocabulary: Basic words that commonly appear in spoken language. Because they are heard frequently in numerous contexts and with nonverbal communication, Tier 1 words rarely require explicit instruction.Examples of Tier 1 words are clock, baby, happy and walk.
Tier 2 Academic Vocabulary: Less high frequency words used by mature language users across several academic content areas. Because of their lack of redundancy in oral language and their multiple meaning or descriptive nature, Tier 2 words present challenges to students who primarily meet them in print and on test. Examples of Tier 2 words are obvious, complex, establish and verify.
Tier 3 Academic Vocabulary: Low Frequency words that are not frequently used except in specific academic content areas or domains. Tier 3 words are central to building backgrounds knowledge and conceptual understanding within the various academic domains and should be integral to instruction of content. Medical, legal, biology and mathematics terms are all examples of these words.
The new CCSS ELA for reading and English language arts are three standard deviations above many States passing cut scores (NCLB testing mandate). A (CCSS) white paper to publishers and curriculum developers states a greater focus on Tier 2 high frequency academic vocabulary is needed in the primary grades. Teachers will have a few years to learn and prepare before the new standards are in effect and part of high stakes testing. Preparing students is the proverbial fly in the ointment, meeting the challenge will be virtually impossible to reach in the time allotted. What next? Endless teacher in-service training?
I have used variations of Tier 2 high frequency academic vocabulary plus the NWEA tier 3 academic content specific vocabulary for years, but I have never found a qualitative graded tier 2 list! You will find great tier 3 vocabulary list by frequency, grade level, and content but not tier 2 vocabulary by grade level.
DOK Level 3 Question STEMS Samples
Fiction DOK STEM | What key details or examples (e.g. dialogue or feelings) in the text can you draw on too explain the antagonists reactions?
Fiction DOK STEM | What evidence do you cite when determining the main idea? Explain why you think that is the main idea!
Non Fiction DOK STEM | What text features (e.g. charts or illustrations) can you use to appraise facts for validity? Are charts an illustrations always based on facts?
Non Fiction DOK STEM | Did you asses the authors use of literary elements or literary techniques when drawing conclusions
/inferences from the text? How does the author use literary elements or literary techniques to develop key ideas?
WEBB'S DOK Verbs | Tier 2 Vocabulary
Develop a Logical Argument
Explain Phenomena in Terms of Concepts
Use Concepts to Solve Non-Routine Problems
Collect and Display
Who, What, When, Where, Why
Tier 2 High frequency words used by mature language users across several content areas. Because of their lack of redundancy in oral language, Tier 2 words present challenges to students who primarily meet them in print and on test. Examples of Tier 2 words are obvious, complex, establish and verify.
Tier 3 Words that are not frequently used except in specific content areas or domains. Tier 3 words are central to building knowledge and conceptual understanding within the various academic domains and should be integral to instruction of content. Medical, legal, biology and mathematics terms are all examples of these words.
TIER 2 High Frequency Academic Vocabulary Words
accelerate, achieve, adjacent, alternative, analyze, approach, approximate, arbitrary,assert, assess, assign, assume, authorize, automatic, chapter, compensate, complex,complicate, comply, component, comprehend, conceive, concentrate, concept,
conclude, consequence, consist, constant, construct, consult, context, contrast,contribute, convert, create, criterion, crucial, data, define, definite
demonstrate, denote, derive, design, devise, devote, dimension, distinct, distort,element, emphasize, empirical, ensure, entity, environment, equate, equivalent,establish, evaluate,evident, expand, expose, external, feasible, fluctuate, focus,formulate, function, generate, guarantee, hypothesis, identify, ignore, illustrate,
impact, implicit, imply, indicate, individual, inhibit
initial, innovation, intense, interpret, intuitive, involve, isolate, magnetic, magnitude,major, manipulate, mathematics, method, minimum, modify, negative, notion, obtain,obvious, occur, passive, period, perspective, pertinent, phase, phenomena, portion,
portion, potential, precede, precise, presume, prime, principle, proceed, publish,pursue, random, range, react
region, require, respective, restrict, reverse, role, section, segment, select, sequence,series, shift, signify, similar, simultaneous, sophisticated, species, specify, stable,statistic, status, structure, subsequent, suffice, sum, summary, technique, technology,
tense, theory, trace, tradition, transmit, ultimate, undergo, usage, valid, vary, verbal,verify, vertical