1. Reading Vocabulary: Tier 1, 2, and 3: the corpus or body of words students must understand in order to read text with fluency and comprehension.
Tier 1 Academic Vocabulary: Basic words that commonly appear in spoken language. Because they are heard frequently in numerous contexts and with nonverbal communication, Tier 1 words rarely require explicit instruction. Examples of Tier 1 words are clock, baby, happy and walk.
Tier 2 Academic Vocabulary: Less high-frequency words used by mature language users across several academic content areas. Because of their lack of redundancy in oral language and their multiple-meaning or descriptive nature, Tier 2 words present challenges to students who primarily meet them in print and on test. Examples of Tier 2 words are obvious, complex, establish and verify. Blooms and Webb's DOK verbs are integral to any successful reading instruction or intervention.
Tier 3 Academic Vocabulary: Low-Frequency words that are not frequently used except in specific academic content areas or domains. Tier 3 words are central to building backgrounds knowledge and conceptual understanding within the various academic domains and should be integral to instruction of content. Medical, legal, biology and mathematics terms are all examples of these words.
There are four types of vocabulary used in school. • listening • speaking • reading • spelling/writing
2. Phonemic Awareness: Phonemic awareness is a subset of phonological awareness in which listeners are able to hear, identify and manipulate phonemes, the smallest units of sound that can differentiate meaning. Separating the spoken word "cat" into three distinct phonemes, /k/, /æ/, and /t/, requires phonemic awareness.
3. Synthetic phonics (UK) or blended phonics (US), also known as inductive phonics: the study and use of sound/spelling correspondences to help students identify written words. Phonics instruction teaches students the relationship between letters and speech sounds.
5. Reading Comprehension: Reading comprehension is the ability to read text, process it and understand its meaning. An individual's ability to comprehend text is influenced by their traits and skills, one of which is the ability to make inferences. If word recognition is difficult, students use too much of their processing capacity to read individual words, which interferes with their ability to comprehend what is read. There are a number of approaches to improve reading comprehension, including improving one's vocabulary and reading strategies.