Saturday, August 27, 2011

Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts

Common Core State Standards: Focus on Tier 2 & Tier 3 Academic Vocabulary
The new Common Core State Standards for reading and English language arts are three standard deviations above many States passing cut scores (NCLB testing mandate). A (CCSS) white paper to publishers and curriculum developers states a greater focus on Tier 2 high frequency academic vocabulary is needed in the primary grades. Teachers will have a few years to learn and prepare before the new standards are in effect and part of high stakes testing. Preparing students is the proverbial fly in the ointment, meeting the challenge will be virtually impossible to reach in the time allotted. What next? Endless teacher in-service training?
     I have used variations of Tier 2 high frequency academic vocabulary plus the NWEA tier 3 academic content specific vocabulary for years, but I have never found a qualitative graded tier 2 list!  You will find great tier 3 vocabulary list by frequency, grade level, and content but not tier 2 vocabulary by grade level.
I will bring more resources when I develop or find them. 


Tier 1 Basic words that commonly appear in spoken language.  Because they are heard frequently in numerous contexts and with nonverbal communication, Tier 1 words rarely require explicit instruction.Examples of Tier 1 words are clock, baby, happy and walk.

Tier 2 High frequency words used by mature language users across several content areas.  Because of their lack of redundancy in oral language, Tier 2 words present challenges to students who primarily meet them in print.  Examples of Tier 2 words are obvious, complex, establish and verify.

Tier 3 Words that are not frequently used except in specific content areas or domains.  Tier 3 words are central to building knowledge and conceptual understanding within the various academic domains and should be integral to instruction of content.  Medical, legal, biology and mathematics terms are all examples of these words.

TIER 2 High Frequency Academic Vocabulary Words 
accelerate, achieve, adjacent, alternative, analyze, approach, approximate, arbitrary,
assert, assess, assign, assume, authorize, automatic, chapter, compensate, complex,
complicate, comply, component, comprehend, conceive, concentrate, concept,
conclude, consequence, consist, constant, construct, consult, context, contrast,
contribute, convert, create, criterion, crucial, data, define, definite

demonstrate, denote, derive, design, devise, devote, dimension, distinct, distort,
element, emphasize, empirical, ensure, entity, environment, equate, equivalent,
establish, evaluate,evident, expand, expose, external, feasible, fluctuate, focus,
formulate, function, generate, guarantee, hypothesis, identify, ignore, illustrate,
impact, implicit, imply, indicate, individual, inhibit

initial, innovation, intense, interpret, intuitive, involve, isolate, magnetic, magnitude,
major, manipulate, mathematics, method, minimum, modify, negative, notion, obtain,
obvious, occur, passive, period, perspective, pertinent, phase, phenomena, portion,
portion, potential, precede, precise, presume, prime, principle, proceed, publish,
pursue, random, range, react

region, require, respective, restrict, reverse, role, section, segment, select, sequence,
series, shift, signify, similar, simultaneous, sophisticated, species, specify, stable,
statistic, status, structure, subsequent, suffice, sum, summary, technique, technology,
tense, theory, trace, tradition, transmit, ultimate, undergo, usage, valid, vary, verbal,
verify, vertical

Tier 2 & 3 Reading and Vocabulary Games

Vocabulary Games

Alien Vocabulary Game (Tier 3 Testing Words) (or Chutes and LaddersUse this free tier 3 academic vocabulary game to build test readiness. The game is designed to be a fun way to build academic vocabulary using a game students already know. A number of "CAMO Aliens" (ladders) and "Blues Aliens" (or "chutes") are pictured on the board, each connecting two specific board squares. The object of the game is to navigate one's game piece from the start (bottom square) to the finish (top square), helped or hindered by CAMO Aliens and Blues Aliens, respectively. Any time you land on an alien you have to draw a new card! If you land on the CAMO Aliens and answer the vocabulary question correctly you beam to the next highest CAMO Alien plus the move allowance on the card. If you land on the Blue Alien and get the question wrong you beam down to the next lowest Blues Alien. If you are on a Blue Alien and answer correctly you stay put until your next turn.

The game is a simple race to the top using the RBC Vocabulary Flash Cards, and is popular with children.
Vocabulary Game Cards Reading


See STAR Toolkit http://www.startoolkit.org/ for more information about Tier 2 words.
 Links to Tier 2 Academic Vocabulary Resources 
Links to PDF Academic Word List


Tier 2 Academic Vocabulary Sample

Sublist 1 of the Academic Word List - Most Frequent Words in Families
This sublist contains the most frequent words of the Academic Word List in the Academic Corpus.

analysis, approach, area, assessment, assume, authority, available, benefit, concept
consistent, constitutional, context, contract, create, data, definition, derived, distribution
economic, environment , established, evidence, export, factors financial, formula,function
identified, income, indicate, individual, interpretation, involved, issues, labor, legal, legislation
major, method, occur, percent , period, policy, principle, procedure, process, required,
research, response, role, section, sector, significant, similar, source, specific, structure
theory, variable

High Incidence Academic Vocabulary
Kid-Friendly Glossary & Examples
(Tier 2) Level One

analyze
To study something carefully in order to understand it or learn more about it.
"Elise needed to analyze the test question  -  What exactly was the question asking for?"

approach
To move closer to someone or something.
"Mr. Kyes will approach Mr. Taylor to ask if Damian is at grade level."

area
The measurement of the surface inside the boundaries of something (square units) .
"Mrs. Garcia's kitchen wall was eight feet high and ten feet wide;  to paint this wall she needed a can of paint to cover an area of eighty square feet.

assess
To judge or figure out the value of something, both good and bad values.
"The coach had to assess his players to decide which one would play first base."

assume
To suppose that something is true without checking first. "Ellie assumed that she would get a high score on her math test without studying, but her score was low...

authority
The right or power to make rules and see that the rules are followed. "Mr. Taylor has authority in his class the Fire Department has authority at a fire scene."

available
Able to be used or gotten. "The last Harry Potter movie should be really exciting, but it's not available yet."

benefit
Something that helps good to happen.
"Suzette was great at playing soccer;  a real benefit to her team!"

concept
An idea or thought. " 'Is that your concept of fair play?' shouted the coach when Elton intentionally tripped the runner." consist
To be made up of something. "Her favorite chocolate fudge consists of sugar, corn syrup, cocoa, butter, milk, and chopped walnuts."

constitute
To be something or a part of something.
" 'Helping me to get up does not constitute an apology!' said Elsbet angrily, after Harry had knocked her down."

context
The words and phrases that surround a word or sentence, and help to understand the meaning of the word or sentence. "I said that I don't trust dishonest people, not that I don't trust all people;  you've taken the words out of context!"

contract
A document of formal or legal agreement.
"Mr. and Mrs. Young signed a contract with the apartment owner. The Young’s agreed to pay rent each month for a year, and the owner agreed that they could live in the apartment for a year."

create
To make something. "In art class Ms. Miller explained how to create a cereal bowl from wet, grey clay."

data
Information, often in the form of facts or numbers. "Mr. Taylor wrote down the class test scores in his notebook, and then entered that data in his computer."

define
To describe something exactly. "That row of barbed-wire fence defines the edge of Grandpa's field."

derive
To get something from a source. "The word  'home'  derives from an Old English word which meant a place to lie down and rest."

distribute
To give something out to a number of people. "Mr. Taylor will distribute  'Kid-Friendly Glossary & Examples' sheets to his class."

economy
Getting something done in the most effective way, with the best results for the amount of effort, money, and material used.
"Harry was the best jumper on our track team;  he smoothly cleared the top rail of the high jump with great economy of motion."

environment
All that surrounds something. "The aquarium tank contains the environment of Patrick's angel fish;  the forest  is the environment of the crested woodpecker."
Establish To start or set up something that is meant to last a long time. "The University of Michigan was established in 1834."

estimate
A rough calculation, an educated guess.
"Nine years old is my estimate of Theo's age."

evident
Obvious or easy to understand. "He couldn't answer any of his partner's questions.  It was evident that Jake hadn't read his assignment."

export
To send goods for sale to another country.
"Mr. Stevens needed to update his export license before he could sell his wheat to Portugal."

factor
Something that is part of what makes another thing happen. "Eating a balanced diet and exercising are factors in staying healthy." Also, "Not paying attention in class and not doing homework are factors in failing a test."

finance
To raise or provide money for something or someone. "I'd like to buy that new truck, but I don't think I can finance that much money right now."

formula
A rule that is written in symbols and numbers. "The formula for the area of a rectangle is  A  =  b * h "  (area = base * height)."

function
The purpose for which something is designed or used. "The function of the school bus is to carry students to and from school."

identify
To recognize and name something or somebody. "Hector identified the jacket that he had lostit was in the school's  'Lost and Found'  box."

income
Money received over a period of time for work done or goods sold. "Todd worked part-time that summer and earned an income of $300. "

indicate
To show or point out something. "Jasmine said that she liked her aunt's cake, but her sour face indicated that she really didn't like it." Also, "The thermometer indicates that it's a very hot day."

interpret
To find or explain the meaning of something.  Also, to translate the meaning of words from one language into another language.
"The poem wrote about flowers and winds, but at the poetry reading the poem was interpreted to be about sadness and loneliness. " Also, "Wendy sat close to the new kindergartener to interpret for her."

 involve
To include something as necessary.
"Making a cake involves measuring, mixing, baking, and decorating."

issue
The main idea to be talked about, or a particular publication (magazine, stamp, stocks or bonds). " 'That's not the issue,' said Ricardo. 'We were going to plan a surprise party, not talk about the weather!'  "
Also, "Do you have the December 2010  issue of 'National Geographic'? "

labor
Physical work, especially using strength; or the group of all workers of a country or industry. "The labor union at the Chevrolet plant was telling the automobile workers not  to go to work in the morning." Also,
"Making the beautiful flower arrangement for her mother was a labor of love."

legal
Allowed by law, or related to law and courts of law. "Speeding on the city streets is not legal."

legislate
To write and pass laws. "The candidate promised to legislate to make more jobs available."

major
Of great importance, size, or seriousness;  also, a military title. "Major Samuelson announced that the weather satellite showed a major storm coming into southern Arizona."

method
A way of doing somethingorderliness.
"The lattice method is one way to multiply;  long division is one method of dividing."

occur
To happen, or to come into one's mind.
"What time will that occur?  It just occurred to me that we are late!"

percent
Used to express a proportion in hundredths, sometimes with the ' %' sign. "Elizabeth knew that  'percent'  meant  'per  hundred'.  That's why  '70%'  is the same as  '70 hundredths'  or   '.70 ' or   '70/100' . "

period
A punctuation mark(.) used at the end of a sentence or in abbreviations;  also a division of playing time in some sports. "It didn't look good.  The U of A Wildcats hadn't scored at all by the end of the first period."

policy
A way of acting that is used by a person, or group or government. "It was Grandfather's policy to never charge anything on credit.  He would not buy at all if he couldn't pay cash."

principle
The basic way something works also, the model of quality or right-and-wrong that people follow in life. "I try to always tell the truth, as a matter of principle."

proceed
To go on to do something.
"After the guard checked Mrs. Slone's identification, he told her to proceed into the building."

process
A number of actions done to make a special thing happen. Registering to vote is a careful process:  First, you must show that you are a citizen and are at least 18 years old Then you must show that you live in this county. 

require
To need something or somebody.
"Mary's dog requires a rabies vaccination before it can get a dog license."

research
To look for facts in a careful, organized way for the purpose of learning about something, or telling whether what you already know is true or not. "Elliot began his research with the 1938 passenger lists of a steamship.  He wanted to find out how his grandfather first came to America."

respond
To give an answer. "The dog will always respond to a knock on the door by loud barking!"

role
An acting part in a movie, play, or other performance;  also, an expected way that someone or something"At the neighborhood potluck, Martha's role was to set out the cold food while Paul fired up the grill and Kathryn filled the cooler with Pepsi and 7-Up."
  
section
A distinct part of the whole of something.
"Luz separated the tangerine into 12 sections."

sector
A pie-shaped part of a circlealso, a part of an area where military forces are in control.
"The General's plan called for Sector B to move out at dawn."

significant
Meaningful, or having an important effect.
"Jessie's home run was significant in helping her team to win the game."

similar
Like something else, but not totally the same. "The two trucks were similar:  both were 2005 pickups, but one was black and one was red."

source
The person, place, or thing where something started or was found. "Grandmother looked for the source of the leak that was making a puddle on the kitchen floor." Also,
"What is the source of the information in your science report?"

specific
Description that is exact and detailed enough to identify a particular person, place, or thing. "The doctor gave specific instructions to Heather's nurse."

structure
Something built; or the way parts go together and work together. "That old iron bridge is an interesting structure;  look how all the pieces fit together!"

theory
An idea or set of ideas about how and why things work together.   "Sylvia had a theory about how to increase her vocabulary."

vary
To change something.
"Max would vary his lunch.  Sometimes he had a peanut butter-and-jelly sandwich;  sometimes he had pizza."

 More High-incidence Tier 2 Academic Word List

initial
Of, relating to, or occurring at the beginning; first; the first letter of a word or name. President George Washington's initials were GW, and he was the initial president of the U.S.A.

instance
An example that makes a point.
The Harry Potter books, for instance, have proven to be popular with both children and adults.

interact
To act upon each other.
When a soccer ball and your foot interact, the ball can go quite a distance.
You are supposed to interact with your partner when you are reading "cop cars" style.

justify
To provide an acceptable explanation for something.
It is hard to justify not completing an assignment when Mr. Taylor has given you two hours in class to work on it.

layer
A single thickness of the same material or covering.
Sydney brought a chocolate layer cake to class for her birthday.

link
1) A connection between places, persons, events or things; to join together.
1) Example: When writing your Read and Response paragraph, you must link the details to the topic sentence.
2) One piece of a chain or other group of connected items.
2) Example: Each link in the anchor chain of a large ship weighs many pounds.
2) Example: Do you like link sausage?

locate
To place; to set in a chosen spot or position; to place yourself; to settle; to take up your home.
Many people locate in Tucson because they like the warm winters.

maximize
To make as large as possible.
If you want to maximize your enjoyment of Mr. Taylor's class, you must follow instructions.

minor
Of little importance.
The punctuation errors in Michael's paragraph were minor.

negate
To deny the existence, evidence or truth of; to take the opposite position; to cause negative results.
One good Read and Response will not negate ten bad ones.


outcome
How something turns out; the result of a plan, process, accident or effort.
If you do a good job of completing all your assignments in Mr. Taylor's class, you will have a good outcome.

partner
Someone who works or plays with another person.
Alyia was my cop cars reading partner.

philosophy
A view or outlook on some subject.
One philosophy of life says that if you work hard and do your best, you will be successful.

physical
Having to do with the body or material world.
Science studies the physical world.

proportion
A quantity of something that is part of the whole amount or number.
One way to make certain a piece of cake will be cut into two pieces of equal proportion is to have one person cut the cake, and the other person choose the first slice.

publish
To issue a printed work for sale and distribution; to enter information on an internet site.
Mr. Taylor has been able to publish a book on Reading Boot Camp, and he also publishes information about reading on his website.

react
To respond in some way to a force, idea, surprise, etc.
It is hard not to react to some of the action in a 3D movie.

register
To sign up for something like school or soccer; to have an idea "sink in" to your brain.
About 100 children register for kindergarten at Rio Vista every year.

rely
To trust; to depend upon.
If you want to be successful you must learn to rely on yourself to get your work done.

remove
To take something away.
It is very hard to remove permanent marker designs from your hands.

scheme
A plan for future action; to plan something sneaky.
The students had a secret scheme to surprise the teacher on her birthday.

sequence
The order of events or things.
Every game has a sequence that must be followed.

sex
Either of two main classes (male or female) of an organism.
What sex is that hamster?

shift
To change; to move from one place to another; to change position.
Mr. Taylor had to shift the tables around for the new class.

specify
To state clearly or in detail.
Mr. Taylor will specify the information that has to be included in your science report.

sufficient
Enough; able to meet
We'll die in the desert if we do not drink sufficient water.

task
A piece of assigned work; an assignment; an objective; a job
One task I had as a child was washing dishes.

technical
Having to do with science or machines; the specific words used in science, math, engineering, business, etc.
Flint Technical High School had technical courses, including math, science, drafting and machine shop.

technique
A special skill or set of skills needed to be good at something: painting; sports; surgery; writing, etc.
Famous painters each have some technique that makes their artwork special.

technology
The tools and science produced by a given society.
There is technology in your classroom that didn't exist just a few years ago.

valid
Correct; proper; true
It is against the law to drive a car unless you have a valid driver's license.

volume
The amount of something (homework); the loudness of sound; amount of space, measured in cubic centimeters, cubic, inches, cubic feet, or pints, quarts, gallons, liters. etc.
Mr. Taylor turns up the volume on the music he plays during our brain breaks.

TIER 2 ACADEMIC VOCABULARY GLOSSARY 
accelerate-to make something go faster. The driver accelerated the car.
achieve-to do or complete something with success. He wanted to become famous, and he achieved his goal.
adjacent-near or next to. The bank is adjacent to the post office.
alternative-one of two or more choices. Our two alternatives are walking or taking a taxi.
analyze-to separate into parts for close study; examine and explain. If we analyze the problem, perhaps we can solve it.
approach-to come or go near to. Be careful when you approach a strange dog.
approximate-close in amount or time, but not exact. The mechanic told us the approximate cost to repair the car. What is the approximate time that you will arrive?
arbitrary-resulting from personal opinions, wishes, or feelings instead of from a rule or reason. The jury's decision seemed unfair and arbitrary.
assert-to state with force or confidence. He asserted his innocence.
assess-to set or try to find the importance or value of; evaluate; estimate. They assessed the damage to his car.
assign-to choose someone to do a particular thing. His boss assigned him to work the night shift.
assume-to think that something is true without knowing the facts or asking about them. Everyone assumed they were rich because they had a big house, many cars, and a swimming pool.
authorize-to give authority to. My mother authorized the doctor to treat my brother's broken arm.
automatic-working or operating by itself. This house has an automatic heating system.
chapter-one of the main parts of a book. The last chapter of this novel is the most exciting.
compensate-to pay or repay. I compensated him for the dinner he gave us.
complex-not simple. A computer is a complex machine. English spelling is complex.
complicate-to make more difficult to do or understand. The bad weather complicated our vacation plans.
comply-to do what is asked or demanded; act in agreement with a rule (sometimes followed by "with"). I complied with my teacher's request that I get permission from my parents. Please comply with the campground's rule against littering.
component- a part of something. One of the components of the engine is missing. Vegetables are a component of a healthy diet.
comprehend-to understand. Do you comprehend the instructions?
conceive-to give shape to in the mind. She conceived a clever story.
concentrate-to make purer or stronger by taking away parts that are not necessary. To concentrate some substances, you remove the water they contain. If you boil this sauce for a long time, it will concentrate and get thick.
concept-a general idea or thought. The concept of marriage is different in different countries. My youngest child has difficulty learning new concepts.
conclude-to bring to an end; finish or complete. We concluded the meeting and went out for lunch.
consequence-that which follows; result. Her stomach pain was a consequence of eating too much.
consist-to be made up or formed of something. The United States consists of fifty states.
constant-going on without a pause. The dog's constant barking annoyed the neighbors.
construct-to build; put together. They constructed the garage in three days.
consult-to speak with someone or look up something to gain advice or information. Bob consulted the doctor about his pain. I consulted the dictionary to check the spelling of a word.
context-the setting of a word or phrase that affects its meaning. The meaning of the word "fly" changes depending on its context.
contrast-to compare in order to show differences. The book contrasted the lives of women a hundred years ago with the lives of women today.
contribute-to give something for a purpose. The contributed time and money to the animal shelter.
convert-to change into a different form or state. This sofa converts to a bed. He converted to his wife's religion.
create-to bring into being. The chef created a new dish.
criterion-a standard or test by which to judge or decide. Power is only one criterion of a car's quality.
crucial-very important; deciding the success or failure of something. It is crucial that you follow directions during a fire drill. The surgeon had reached a crucial moment during the operation.
data-facts, figures, or other pieces of information that can be used in different ways. Computers are used to store large amounts of data. Data about the U.S. population is collected every ten years.
define-to explain the meaning of a word or phrase. This dictionary defines hundreds of words.
definite-clear or exact. I have no definite plans for Friday night. I have a definite reason for wanting it this way.
demonstrate-to show how to do something. The physical education teacher demonstrated some new exercises.
denote-to be a mark or sign of. A flashing red light denotes danger.
derive-to obtain from a particular source (usually followed by "from"). Many medicines have ingredients derived from plants.
design-to draw plans for the form or structure of something. She designs and makes her own clothes. He designed an addition to his house.
devise-to invent or think out. She devised a plan to earn money.
devote-to give to a purpose; dedicate. They devoted their time and energy to helping others.
dimension-size as measured in length, width, or depth. The dimensions of the box are two feet long, one foot wide, and six inches deep.
distinct-different or separate. There are many distinct kinds of dogs.
distort-to twist out of shape; change the way a thing looks or acts. The ripples in the pond distorted his reflection.
element-a basic part of any whole. One element of this recipe is missing.
emphasize-to give particular attention to something. The president emphasized the importance of education.
empirical-based on or verifiable by experience or experiment, rather than on or by theory. Claims for the effectiveness of the drug are based on empirical
evidence-Scientists use the empirical method so that their results can be verified.
ensure-to make certain; cause to be a certainty. Those dark clouds ensure rain.
entity-anything that exists objectively and distinctly, whether nonliving or living; thing or being. A wife in those days was not viewed as a separate entity from her husband. As a corporation, the business is a distinct entity and must pay its own taxes.
environment-the objects and conditions that exist in a place and influence how people feel and develop. A safe environment is important for the proper development of a child. Problems with the boss create a bad work environment.
equate-to make or consider to be equal or equivalent. Classroom learning is essential, but it cannot be equated with experience on the job. Her parents equate money with success.
equivalent-the same as or equal to another in force, value, measure, or meaning. Three feet is equivalent to one yard.
establish-to start or make something that did not exist before. He established a new business last year.
evaluate-to judge or set the value of. The magazine evaluated ten new cars.
evident-easily seen; clear. Her happiness was evident to all.
expand-to make larger or wider. The supermarket expanded its parking lot.
expose-to show something that you usually cannot see. We pulled up the carpet and exposed the wood floor.
external-of the outside or outer part. He cleaned only the external surfaces of the oven.
feasible-capable of being done, carried out, or brought about; possible. The project seemed quite feasible when they started, but they soon ran into an obstacle. Finishing by March is a feasible objective in our opinion.
fluctuate-to vary or change irregularly; rise and fall. The price of gold continually fluctuates. My appetite fluctuates; some days I'm hungry all the time and other days I don't feel like eating at all.
focus-the area of greatest attention or activity. The focus of the report was changes in the economy.
formulate-to state in precise or systematic terms.
function-the purpose for which an object or a person is used. The function of a police officer is to keep the peace. The function of scissors is to cut things.
generate-to bring into being or to produce. The human body generates heat.
guarantee-a promise that something you have bought will work well. If it does not, the store must either repair it or give you a new one. There is a two year guarantee on my new computer.
hypothesis-a prediction or educated guess that can be tested and can be used to guide further study. This chapter explains scientists' new hypothesis about the birth of stars.
identify-to find out or show who someone is or what something is. She identified him as the criminal. He is good at identifying trees.
ignore-to refuse to recognize or notice. She ignored me at the dance.
illustrate-to provide pictures to go along with written material. He illustrated the children's book with pictures of dinosaurs.
impact-the coming together of objects with great force. The impact of the bus against the tree cracked the windshield.
implicit-implied rather than directly stated. She realized that his words, complimentary on the surface, contained an implicit insult. Her rejection of his proposal was implicit in her silence.
imply-to hint or suggest without saying directly. When she said that the floor was dirty, she was implying that I should mop it.
indicate-to show or point out. Can you indicate your street on the map?
individual-single, separate, or different from others. You need to water each individual plant.
inhibit-to hold back, restrain, prevent, or tend to do so. His fears inhibit him from making friends. Salt inhibits the freezing of water. Threats of violence inhibited the people from registering to vote.
initial-first. I was nervous before my initial visit to the doctor.
innovation-a new idea, product, or way to do something. Thanks to innovations in technology, many people can now make use of a computer.
intense-having a very great degree of something, such as heat, or being in a very great degree or state. The intense heat from the burning building made it impossible for the fire fighters to go in.
interpret-to understand in a particular way. I interpreted her smile to mean that she agreed. We had to interpret a poem in English class.
intuitive-of or pertaining to intuition. He had an intuitive understanding of the situation.
involve-to have as a necessary part; include. Police work involves danger. Please don't involve me in your problems.
isolate-to set apart in order to make alone. The doctors isolated the sick child. His house is isolated in the woods.
magnetic-having to do with magnets and the way they work. Certain metals are magnetic.
magnitude-size or extent. The magnitude of the universe can make us feel small.
major-very important. The economy is a major issue in the campaign for president.
manipulate-to handle or operate skillfully with the hands. He manipulated the clay to form a tiny sculpture. Do you know how to manipulate the controls?
mathematics-the study of numbers, amounts, and shapes, and the relationships among them.
method-a regular or proven way of doing something. He has his own method of working.
minimum-the smallest possible amount or number. There is an age minimum for this movie.
modify-to change in some way; alter. They modified the language of the play so that the younger children could understand it.
negative-saying or meaning "no. "He gave a negative answer to the question.
notion-an idea, opinion, or view. I have no notion of what you mean.
obtain-to get; gain. He obtained his college degree in just three years.
obvious-easy for anyone to see or understand; clear. It was obvious that he liked her a lot.
occur-to take place; happen. Where were you when the crime occurred?
passive-not being active or being part of an activity. Watching television is a passive activity.
period-a section of time with a set beginning and end. We will be on vacation for a period of three weeks.
perspective-a way of showing objects on the flat surface of a picture so that they seem the correct size and distance from one another.
pertinent-having to do with or connected to a subject; relevant. Sailing is not pertinent to a discussion about the desert.
phase-a particular stage of development or of a process. Teenagers go through many phases as they become adults.
phenomenon-a happening or fact that can be seen or known through the senses. A hurricane is an example of a weather phenomenon.
portion-a part of a whole. He read a portion of the book.
potential-able to come into being; possible. That broken stair is a potential danger.
precede-to come before in time. The movie was preceded by several ads for other movies.
precise-stated in a clear way and with details. Because of the precise directions, we were able to find the park.
presume-to take for granted; assume. I presumed you would wait for me even if I was late.
prime-first in importance. Sugar was the prime export of Hawaii for many years.
principle-a basic law or belief on which action or behavior is based. Our country's laws are based on the principles of liberty and justice for all.
proceed-to move forward after a stop. After you give your name, you may proceed to the front of the line.
publish-to prepare and print something for the public to read. I work for a company that publishes magazines.
pursue-to follow in order to reach or catch; chase. The police officer pursued the thief on foot.
random-made or done without purpose or pattern; made or done by chance. I made a random choice of five books from the library.
range-the two end points or limits between which something can vary, or the distance between these two limits. In this school, the range of ages is from five to eleven. The paint store has a wide range of paint colors to choose from.
react-to act in a particular way because of something that happened. Sue reacted calmly when she heard the bad news.
region-an area of the earth's surface that has a certain type of land and climate. This tree grows only in tropical regions.
require-to make something necessary. When someone requires you to do something, you must do it. The law requires drivers to have insurance. The school requires physical examinations for all the children.
respective-of or belonging to each one. The brothers' respective ages are sixteen and twenty three.
restrict-to keep within certain limits. His parents restricted him to his room. Can we restrict our discussion to one topic?
reverse-opposite in direction, position, or movement. The reverse side of the towel is softer.
role-the customary or expected behavior associated with a particular position in a society. She feared that she could not fulfill the role of a royal princess.
section-a part that is different or apart from the whole. I like living in this section of the city. Put the book back in the top section of the bookcase.
segment-one of the parts into which something is or can be separated. She divided the orange into segments. He wrote about one segment of our history.
select-to choose; pick. Please select the song you would like to play.
sequence-the order in which things follow one another. Classes at our school follow the same sequence every day.
series-a group of similar things that come one after another. She read a series of articles in the newspaper. He had a series of back injuries.
shift-to move or change position. The boy shifted in his chair.
signify-to serve as a sign of; mean. I've seen this symbol many times, but I can't remember what it signifies.
similar-being almost the same as something else. Lee's handwriting is similar to mine.
simultaneous-existing, happening, or done at the same time. The gymnasts all did a simultaneous flip.
sophisticated-having or showing a lot of knowledge or experience; not ignorant or simple. This author writes for a sophisticated audience.
species-a group of living things that are the same in many important ways. Members of a species can produce young together. Cats and dogs belong to different species.
specify-to name or otherwise indicate explicitly. She specified her niece as the heir to her fortune. Did he specify which brand of coffee he wanted?
stable-firm or steady; not likely to move. The table is not stable because one of its legs is too short.
statistic-a piece of numerical information. The almanac also gives weather statistics such as record high or record low temperatures. The census gathers statistics on the population such as the number of children per household. The percentage of people who voted in the election is an interesting statistic.
status-a person's position or level in comparison with the position of other people. His status rose when he got the new job.
structure-a thing that is made up of different parts that are connected in a particular way. A human cell is a complicated structure. That new hotel is an interesting structure.
subsequent-coming or happening after; following. His first film was a complete flop, but his subsequent films were quite successful. Four years subsequent to their arrival in New York, they moved the family to Chicago. In subsequent years, they were to think fondly of how they had first met.
suffice-to meet needs, goals, or the like adequately; be sufficient.
sum-the number or amount that comes from adding two or more numbers. The sum of ten and ten is twenty.
summary-a short and usually comprehensive statement of what has been previously stated. The paper ended with a concise summary of all of the writer's points. I didn't have time to read the whole article so I read just the summary.
technique-a particular way of doing something. He learned several techniques for baking bread.
technology-a field of knowledge having to do with the use of science and industry to help solve common problems of life. Technology is used to help solve energy problems.
tense-pulled or stretched tight. My muscles are still tense from lifting those heavy boxes.
tense-the form of verbs that shows when an action happens. In English, verbs change their form to show past or present time. In the sentence "I stopped the car," the verb "stopped" is in the past tense.
theory-a statement that explains why something happens but has not been proven. The police have a theory about who stole the jewels. The scientists discussed theories about the beginning of life on Earth.
trace-a very small amount of something. There was a trace of smoke in the air. The police detective found a trace of lipstick on the glass.
tradition-the beliefs and ways of doing things that are passed down from parents to children. Many people celebrate holidays by carrying out old family traditions.
transmit-to send or carry from one person, place, or thing to another. They transmitted the message to their leader. The television station refused to transmit the program.
ultimate-last or farthest in a progression; final. Your grade will be based on the quality of your ultimate product. To become a full professor is her ultimate goal. They sailed to the port of New York, but Minneapolis was their ultimate destination.
undergo-to have the experience of; receive; endure. She'll undergo surgery on her foot next week. Our family underwent major changes last year.
usage-way or manner of using or treating something. The teacher explained the usage of the new words and expressions.
valid-based on truth, fact, or logic. It's valid to say that cats have whiskers. His argument is valid.
vary-to change from something else, or to be different from other things. The weather varies a lot this time of year. The children vary in age from eight years old to fifteen years old.
verbal-having to do with words. That poet has wonderful verbal skill.
verify-to make sure of the truth or correctness of. We verified his story by talking to his father. The waiter verified our bill by checking it with a calculator.
vertical-straight up and down; upright. His shirt has vertical stripes.

4 comments:

  1. i wanted examples of 1 tier words not 2 or 3!!! :(

    ReplyDelete
  2. Tier 1 is BASIC....I would hope those would be known considering they are everyday, common words!!!
    Tier 2 & 3 are more confusing to most teachers/users. THANKS for the insight. You did a great job!

    ReplyDelete
  3. Thank you so much for providing these resources. My district is giving us another year to prepare for Common Core testing, so adding academic vocabulary into weekly studies is my next step. Thanks again!

    ReplyDelete