the 14th century. The soroban uses a decimal system, where each of the rods can represent a single digit from 0 to 9. By moving beads towards the reckoning bar, they are put in the "on" position; i.e., they assume value. For the "five bead" this means it is moved downwards, while "one beads" are moved upwards. In this manner, all digits from 0 to 9 can be represented by different configurations of beads.
Abacus Information and Resources
Abacus vs Calculators
Prime Factorization on the Abacus
Using an Abacus and the Counting Method
Courses Available to Learn Abacus
Abacus Internet Site Packet
Iowa Braille School Online Abacus Videos!!
UAbacusAbacus Soroban Textbook and workbook sample pages
Soroban The Japanese Abacus By Kimie Markarian
Abacus Soroban Math Worksheet Generator
Soroban Math Exam Generator
Adapted Abacus for the Visually Impaired Information Sites:
What is an abacus?
Cranmer Abacus Video
Using the Abacus and the Counting Method
Use of the Cranmer Abacus by Dr. Rita Livingston
General History of Abacus Sites:
The Abacist's Guide to the Internet (links)
What is a soroban abacus
Montana teaches Soroban Abacus and has Teacher Training in summer
Hellgate Elementary School:
Link to Grade 3-5 then link to Abacus
The League of Japan Abacus Associations An association promoting the use of the soroban in Japan. Including soroban training for foreigners in Japan.
Soroban Education Singapore The Soroban Education Centre of Singapore. A teaching institution for abacus and mental calculation. They also have a little photo gallery.
Global Soroban Institute The Global Soroban Institute is a non-profit school organization, established in 2000 and gives guidance and support to Soroban education: research of soroban education, training and development of soroban personnel, operation of Soroban examinations and workshops, propagation of Isao method of Soroban education.
JAMS Portland A school located in Portland, Oregon, USA, where you can learn to operate the soroban.
Osaka Abacus Association The site is mostly in Japanese but there are some very interesting experience stories in English.
SEMAS Academy SEMAS is the abbreviation of "Soroban Education for Mental Arithmetic System". It is a school located in India and they have courses for three different age groups.