Intervention: Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®)
The Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®) program (formerly called
the Auditory Discrimination in Depth® [ADD] program) is designed to teach
students the skills they need to decode words and to identify individual sounds
and blends in words. Initial activities engage students in discovering the lip,
tongue, and mouth actions needed to produce specific sounds. After students
are able to produce, label, and organize the sounds with their mouths,
subsequent activities in sequencing, reading, and spelling use the oral aspects
of sounds to identify and order them within words. The program also offers
direct instruction in letter patterns, sight words, and context clues in reading.
LiPS® is designed for emergent readers in kindergarten through grade 3 or
for struggling, dyslexic readers. The program is individualized to meet students’
needs and is often used with students who have learning disabilities or difficulties.
The version of the program tested here involved computer-supported activities.
One study of LiPS® that falls within the scope of the Students with Learning
Disabilities review protocol meets What Works Clearinghouse (WWC)
evidence standards. The study included 50 students with learning disabilities
from eight to ten years of age in three elementary schools in Florida.3
Based on this study, the WWC considers the extent of evidence for LiPS®
on students with learning disabilities to be small for alphabetics, reading fluency,
reading comprehension, writing, and math. No studies that meet WWC
evidence standards with or without reservations examined the effectiveness
of LiPS® on students with learning disabilities in the general reading
achievement, science, social studies, or progressing in school domains.
LiPS® was found to have potentially positive effects on alphabetics,
reading fluency, and math, no discernible effects on reading comprehension,
and potentially negative effects on writing for students with learning disabilities.
1 The descriptive information for this program was obtained from a publicly
available source: the program’s website (http://www.lindamoodbell.com/,
downloaded October 2009). The WWC requests developers to review the
program description sections for accuracy from their perspective. Further
verification of the accuracy of the descriptive information for this program
is beyond the scope of this review.
2 The studies in this report were reviewed using WWC Evidence
Standards, Version 2.0 (see the WWC Procedures and Standards
Handbook, Chapter III).
3 The evidence presented in this report is based on available research.
Findings and conclusions may change as new research becomes available.
4 These numbers show the average and range of student-level
improvement indices for all findings across the study.
Teachers and Administrators:
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