Reading fluency passages, fluency drills, and or reading fluency assessments are a quick method of assessing a child's basic reading level and fluency by examining both accuracy and the types of miscues, omissions, substitutions or tracking errors.
A fluency drill combined with a concise running record gives the teacher and students feedback whether materials being read are too easy, too difficult, or the reading rate impairs comprehension. Fluency passages with running records serves as an indicator of the areas where a child's reading can improve and can be used to identify students that are at risk using them with a schools Response to Intervention program.
Reading Fluency and Speed Reading Drills
Use the Free PDF fluency drills below for 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th grade. This is a small sample from my Eclectic Speller that the students use to have fun reading and build reading fluency.
Sample Reading Fluency Drills all grades
Fluency Drills By Grade Level
Fluency Drills: 6th Grade
Fluency Drills: 5th Grade
Fluency Drills: 4th Grade
Fluency Drills: 3rd Grade
Fluency Drills: 2nd Grade
Struggling Readers read less than ten
pages per day that's about 2,000-4,000
words per day, or 400,000 words for
the whole year!
Reading Boot Camp students read
27,000 to 40,000 words per day for 20
days. A half million words read in 20
days! That’s 180 to 240 minutes of on task
Free Fluency Charts Pdf. and doc. files
Reading Fluency Charts
Repeated Reading Chart
Fluency is the foundation of reading comprehension. Students that read slowly have little to no recall. The five domains of reading are all important yet fluency is often a after thought. Focusing on fluency will directly impact on comprehension and recall.
Please Email me for free fluency drills.
Repeated reading and rereading of vocabulary controlled materials
Student reads the same material a number of times per day
One minute drills range from a Lexile of 500 to 1100 for
intermediate students, and 150 to 450 for primary students.
• Raw-timing (one, five, ten minutes) New Passages
• Practice rereading of controlled material to increase fluency
• Hot-timing (one, five, ten, twenty, up to sixty minute timing for endurance)
Coupled with the following immediate interventions
Modeling done by teacher, and peers
Peers Administers Fluency Charts to Speed Evaluation
Students self-monitoring of progress through graphing wpm rate
Sample Fluency Drill
One Minute Timed Fluency Test 4th grade
3.9 RL Lexile 675
Snow-white and Rose-red
1. There was once a poor widow who lived in a lonely cottage. In front of
the cottage was a garden wherein stood two rose-trees, one of which
bore white and the other red roses. She had two children who were like
the two rose-trees, and one was called Snow-white, and the other Rose-red.
They were as good and happy, as busy and cheerful as ever two
children in the world were, only Snow-white was more quiet and gentle
than Rose-red. Rose-red liked better to run about in the meadows and
fields seeking flowers and catching butterflies; but Snow-white sat at
home with her mother, and helped her with her housework, or read to
her when there was nothing to do. 124 WPM
2. The two children were so fond of one another that they always held
each other by the hand when they went out together, and when Snow-white
said: 'We will not leave each other,' Rose-red answered: 'Never so
long as we live,' and their mother would add: 'What one has she must
share with the other.' 182 WPM
Sample Fluency Drill
One Minute Timed Fluency Test 4th grade
Reading Level 9.8
1. Alice was beginning to get very tired of sitting by her sister on the bank, and
of having nothing to do: once or twice she had peeped into the book her sister
was reading, but it had no pictures or conversations in it, “and what is the use
of a book,” thought Alice, “without pictures or conversation?” 57 WPM
2. So she was considering, in her own mind (as well as she could, for the hot
day made her feel very sleepy and stupid), whether the pleasure of making a
daisy-chain would be worth the trouble of getting up and picking the daisies,
when suddenly a White Rabbit with pink eyes ran close by her. 114 WPM
3. There was nothing so very remarkable in that; nor did Alice think it so very
much out of the way to hear the Rabbit say to itself “Oh dear! Oh dear! I shall
be too late!” (when she thought it over afterwards, it occurred to her that she
ought to have wondered at this, but at the time it all seemed quite natural); but
when the Rabbit actually took a watch out of its waistcoat-pocket, and looked
at it, and then hurried on, Alice started to her feet, for it flashed across her mind
that she had never before seen a rabbit with either a waistcoat-pocket, or a
watch to take out of it, and, burning with curiosity, she ran across the field
after it, and was just in time to see it pop down a large rabbit-hole under the
hedge. In another moment down went Alice after it, never once considering
how in the world she was to get out again. 278 WPM
Grade Level Fluency Goals
1st Grade 80 Words Correct Per Minute
2nd 140 WCPM
Fluency Drills 1st Grade
Fluency Drill 1st Grade
Do you see Nell?Yes; she has a pan with some eggs in it.
Let me have the pan and the eggs, will you, Nell?
Has the black hen left the nest?
I will now run to catch Rob. Will you run, too? 43
Oh Ben! let me get in, will you?
Yes, if you will sit still.
Stand still, Jill, and let Ann get in.
Now, Ben, hand me the whip.
Get up, Jill!75
Kitty has a nice pet. It can sing a sweet song.
She has just fed it.
She will now put it in the cage,
and hang the cage up. Then the cat can
not catch it. 111
Look at Tom and his dog.
The dog has a black spot on his back.
Do you think he is a good dog?
Tom has a big top, too. It is on the box with Kitty's doll. 149
Fluency Drill 1st Grade
The sun is up.The man has fed the black hen and the fat duck.
Now the duck will swim in the pond. The hen has run to her nest.
Let us not stop at the pond now, for it is hot.
See how still it is! We will go to see Tom and his top. 52
O John! the sun has just set. It is not hot, now.
Let us run and jump. I think it is fun to run, and skip, and jump.
See the duck on the pond! Her nest is up on the bank, under the rock.
We must not touch the nest, but we may look at it. 109
The sun has set, and the pond is still.
John, Ned, Ben, Tom, and Nell stand on the bank, and look at the duck.
The dog with a black spot on his back, is with Tom. See! Tom has his hat
in his hand. He has left his big top on the box.
Kitty's doll is on the rock. Nell has put her pet in the cage. It will
sing a sweet song. The duck has her nest under the rock. 191
It is not hot now. Let us run, and skip, and jump on the bank. Do you not
think it is fun? 214
Kate has gone to play with Mary and James.
They are all in the shade, now, by the brook.
James digs in the soft sand with his spade, and Mary picks up little
stones and puts them in her lap. James and Mary are glad to see Kate.
"What shall we do?" said Mary to James. "I do not like to sit still. Shall
we hunt for eggs in the barn?" "No" said James; "I like to play on the grass.
"We can put the tent in the cart, and go to some nice spot where the grass
is soft and sweet." "That will be fine," said Kate. "I will get my doll,
"Yes," said James, "and we will get mamma to go, too. She will hang up a
swing for us in the shade." "I will get my kite, and see it fly.
This is a fine day. The sun shines bright. There is a good wind,
Why, here comes my dog! He was under the cart. Did you see him there?
What a good time we have had! Are you not glad that we did not go to the woods with James? 246
The Fluency Drill Contained Next Are Made From The
CST RELEASED TEST FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES
SECOND GRADE FLUENCY DRILLS Sample made from released State Standardized Test
Samples are for educational purpose only, full released test can be found at the California Department of Education website.
1 Long ago in India, a boy named Sonu and his mother were walking home from the market. Along the way, Mother stopped and picked up a stick. “Here is a fine stick, Sonu,” she said. “I’m
sorry it is not a drum. I know that you have been wishing for one.” WCPM 53
2 “Thank you, Mother,” said Sonu, taking the long piece of wood. He knew that she would buy him a drum if she had the money. WCPM 81
3 Soon they met a woman who was trying to start a fire. Her fire would not light. “Here,” said Sonu, handing her his stick. The woman used the stick to start the fire. Then she gave Sonu a chapati, a round, flat bread. WCPM 129
4 Next Sonu and his mother met a man and a little girl. The girl was hungry, so Sonu gave her
his bread. “Here, take this drum,” said the man. “Someone gave it to my daughter, but she
doesn’t need it.” WCPM 171
1 Mia lived by the great Amazon River. One day her mother gave her a pretty blue feather. WCPM 17
2 Mia wanted to show the feather to her friend Nali. She put the feather in her basket and told her mother where she was going. Nali lived nearby in a hut by the river. WCPM 53
3 Walking on the path along the river, Mia saw a red flower. As she bent to pick up the flower, the wind blew the blue feather up into the air! Mia could not catch the feather. She sighed and put the red flower in her basket. WCPM 100
4 Then a yellow butterfly flew in front of Mia. Running to catch the butterfly, Mia dropped her basket. The red flower fell out, and the wind carried it out onto the river. WCPM 135
5 Mia sighed and picked up her basket. Looking up, Mia saw the yellow butterfly land on a branch where there was a bluebird. The bluebird flew away, dropping one of its beautiful blue feathers near Mia’s feet! WCPM 176
6 Happily, Mia picked up the feather and hurried to her friend’s house. WCPM 190
2 Dolores grew up in California. She was a good student and liked school. After she finished high school, she went to college and studied to be a teacher. After she became a teacher, Dolores noticed that many of her students were not getting enough food to eat. Some of them wore very old clothes. Dolores wondered how she could help them. WCPM 92
3 Dolores decided to stop teaching so that she could spend more time helping the farm workers and their families. Dolores did not want to quit her job. She liked teaching, but she thought she could help the children more by helping their families. One thing she wanted to do was to get more pay for farm workers so they could buy their children the things they needed. WCPM 162
4 Dolores knew that many farm workers move often from one place to another to help pick different kinds of fruits and vegetables, like lettuce and grapes. She began talking and writing about these workers. Even people who lived far from California read what Dolores wrote. WCPM 210
5 Getting higher pay for the farm workers was not easy. Dolores worked hard to make sure that farm workers got fair pay for their work. She knew that nothing would change unless people made new laws to help the workers. Through all her hard work, new laws were made that gave farm workers fair pay. WCPM 268
6 Dolores Huerta has worked for more than 30 years in many different ways to make life better for working people. She has shown how much one person can change things. WCPM300
1 Sugar the cat belonged to Mr. and Mrs. Woods. Her fur was white like sugar. That is how she got her name. The cat was sweet like sugar too. She was a pleasant pet. She did have a bump on one leg, but Mr. and Mrs. Woods thought that Sugar was just right. WCPM 54
2 The Woods family lived in California. They had lived there for a long time. One day they had to move to another state. It would be a long drive to their new home. Sugar did not like to ride in a car. The family did not know what to do. WCPM 105
3 The neighbors who lived next door wanted a cat and said they would keep Sugar. Sugar would not have to move or ride in a car. Everyone thought that would please her. WCPM 139
4 The Woods family packed the car. They said goodbye to Sugar. They would miss their cat, but Sugar would have a comfortable home. WCPM 164
5 The Woods family moved to Oklahoma, which was far from California. They started a new life and were cozy, but they often thought of their cat. One day Mrs. Woods was in the barn. A cat came in the open door. The cat was wet and dirty, but, under the dirt, its fur was white. It was white like sugar. WCPM 227
6 The cat purred softly and jumped into Mrs. Woods’ arms. Mrs. Woods felt she knew the cat, but her cat lived far away. Then she saw something. There was a bump on its leg! The cat was Sugar! WCPM 265
7 Mr. and Mrs. Woods learned that Sugar had run away from home. Somehow the cat had walked more than 1,000 miles. The trip had taken the cat more than one year. They did not understand how Sugar had found them, but they were delighted that she did! WCPM 318
More to Come!
Fluency Drill 1st Grade
The old cow is in the pond: see her drink!
Will she not come out to get some grass?
No, Tom, she likes to be in the pond. See how still she stands!
The dear old cow gives us sweet milk to drink. 43
Papa, will you let me ride with you on Prince? I will sit still in your arms.
See, mamma! We are both on Prince. How large he is!
Get up, Prince! You are not too fat to trot as far as the barn.
Did you call us, mamma? 92
I went with Tom to the pond. I had my doll, and Tom had his flag.
The fat duck swam to the bank, and we fed her.
Did you think we might fall into the pond?
We did not go too near, did we, Tom?
May we go to the swing, now, mamma? 148
John Carter: A Prisoner
Reading Practice Passage
We had gone perhaps ten miles when the ground began to rise very rapidly.
We were, as I was later to learn, nearing the edge of one of Mars'
long-dead seas, in the bottom of which my encounter with the Martians
had taken place. WCPM 44
In a short time we gained the foot of the mountains, and after traversing
a narrow gorge came to an open valley, at the far extremity of which
was a low table land upon which I beheld an enormous city. Toward this
we galloped, entering it by what appeared to be a ruined roadway leading
out from the city, but only to the edge of the table land, where it
ended abruptly in a flight of broad steps. WCPM 125
Upon closer observation I saw as we passed them that the buildings
were deserted, and while not greatly decayed had the appearance of not
having been tenanted for years, possibly for ages. Toward the center of
the city was a large plaza, and upon this and in the buildings immediately
surrounding it were camped some nine or ten hundred creatures of
the same breed as my captors, for such I now considered them despite
the suave manner in which I had been trapped. WCPM 209
With the exception of their ornaments all were unclothed. The women varied
in appearance but little from the men, except that their tusks were
much larger in proportion to their height, in some instances curving
nearly to their high-set ears. Their bodies were smaller and lighter in color,
and their fingers and toes bore the rudiments of nails, which were entirely
lacking among the males. The adult females ranged in height from
ten to twelve feet. WCPM 289
What was the state of the dwellings in the city, particularly the state of habitation?
A. The dwellings seem to have recent tenants.
B. The dwellings are inhabited and in pristine condition.
C. The city is slightly damaged with no apparent habitation.
John Carter: My Advent on Mars
Reading Practice Passage
I opened my eyes upon a strange and weird landscape. I knew that I was
on Mars; not once did I question either my sanity or my wakefulness. I
was not asleep, no need for pinching here; my inner consciousness told
me as plainly that I was upon Mars as your conscious mind tells you that
you are upon Earth. You do not question the fact; neither did I.
I found myself lying prone upon a bed of yellowish, moss-like vegetation
which stretched around me in all directions for interminable miles. I
seemed to be lying in a deep, circular basin, along the outer verge of
which I could distinguish the irregularities of low hills. WCPM 115
It was midday, the sun was shining full upon me and the heat of it was
rather intense upon my unclothed body, yet no greater than would have
been true under similar conditions on an Arizona desert. Here and there
were slight outcroppings of quartz-bearing rock which glistened in the
sunlight; and a little to my left, perhaps a hundred yards, appeared a
low, walled enclosure about four feet in height. No water, and no other
vegetation than the moss was in evidence, and as I was somewhat thirsty
I determined to do a little exploring. WCPM 212
Springing to my feet I received my first Martian surprise, for the effort,
which on Earth would have brought me standing upright, carried me into
the Martian air to the height of about three yards. I alighted softly
upon the ground, however, without appreciable shock or jar. Now commenced
a series of evolutions which even then seemed ludicrous in the
extreme. I found that I must learn to walk all over again, as the muscular
exertion which carried me easily and safely upon Earth played strange
antics with me upon Mars. WCPM 303
The terrain is similar to the Arizona Desert in what way?
A. The rocks are shimmering and covered with moss.
B. The terrain is arid and hot with no deciduous flora.
C. The land looks like Arizona with cacti and large rock outcroppings.