Thursday, September 1, 2011

4th Grade Science Academic Vocabulary

Fourth Grade Science Test Vocabulary: Common Core State Standards 
Fourth Grade Science Test

Something which has been changed to fit new conditions.
"When Anna moved to the United States with her parents and sisters, she could speak only Hungarian.  Now she can speak English fluently.  Anna has adapted to English; learning English was her adaptation."

A land animal that breeds in water.  It grows to an adult in water, then lives on land.
"Hector's assignment was to bring some amphibians to class.   Hector brought in tadpoles in a jar of pond water."

cell (wall, membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus)
The cell is the basic unit of living things.  A wall (or membrane) surrounds the nucleus and  cytoplasm inside the cell.
"In science class Rhonda made a model of a cell using a balloon for the wall (or membrane), and water and a ping pong ball inside the balloon to represent the  cytoplasm and nucleus."

Droplets of water that form when warm, moist air comes in contact with cold air or a cold surface.
"It was a humid day, and condensation was forming on the outside of Robbie's  glass of iced lemonade."

earth's layers (crust, mantle, core)
In geology the earth's layers are named crust, mantle, and core. 
"The core is the center of the earth, made of molten iron and  nickel;  the crust is the solid outside layer; the mantle is the layer between the core and the crust."

edible ( parts of plants)
Parts of plants that can be eaten by people without harm.
"David's science report told the class that not all mushrooms are edible; some are very poisonous."

Something or someone that is at risk, or in danger.
"The dodo bird was once endangered, and now it is extinct.  The last dodo died in the 17th century."

The gradual wearing away of rock or soil.
"Erosion can happen by wearing away with wind, water, ice, or chemical solution; water erosion weakened the river bank and made it crumble into the river."

When a liquid is changed to a vapor without actually boiling.
"Mr. Taylor said that the evaporation rate was very high; it was SO humid."

The resistance of one object moving against another object.
"James rubbed sandpaper across the shelf until his hand became hot;  the heat was caused by the  friction between the sandpaper and the shelf."

The pull that the earth has on an object on the earth's surface.
"Elizabeth weighs 73 pounds;  This 73 pounds is the force of gravity on Elizabeth, the pull that keeps her from drifting off into space."

The passing on of genetic characteristics, like hair color or flower fragrance, from one generation of living beings to the next.
"Her hair color came to her by heredity:  Sally's great-grandfather had red hair, her grandfather has red hair, her mother has red hair, and Sally has red hair ."

Relating to a moon around a planet, especially the moon around the Earth.
"Isaac and his father focused the telescope on the moon;  tonight was a special night to watch the shadow of the lunar eclipse."

A class of warm-blooded animals that feeds its young with milk.
 "Did you know that the class of mammals includes humans, apes, dogs, whales, dolphins, and bats?"

Mixture is two or more substances combined without any chemical change taking place; the original substances are still present without forming new substances.
Solution is a mixture where one of the original substances is a liquid.
"Stirring together chocolate Quik and milk forms a solution or mixture;  stirring together sugar and flour forms a mixture; stirring together an acid and a metal is not a mixture or a solution because a chemical change occurs and a new substance is formed."

moon phases (correct sequence)
The changing of shapes of the moon as seen from Earth in the sequence:  first quarter, full moon, last quarter, and new moon.
The moon phases repeat in the same order each month, and are caused by the Earth's shadow as it blocks the sun's light to the moon.

parallel circuit
A circuit is a route or path for electricity in which current can flow.  In a parallel circuit there is more than one path for the current to travel; in a series circuit there is only one path.
"Grandfather told us that long ago all the Christmas tree lights would go out when one light blew out  - Those lights were not on parallel circuits."
(Today we have parallel circuits in the electrical cords of our Christmas tree lights, and one bad bulb doesn't shut off the current paths to the rest of the lights.)

To set a musical instrument to a particular key.
"Mario's saxophone didn't sound right when he played songs with the band; he was off-pitch."

Formation of an insoluble substance in a particular solution.
"Look!" said Rita, as a precipitation of solid particles sank to the bottom of her lemonade."

renewable / non-renewable
Being able to be begun or created again -- or not able to be created again.
"Corn and wheat are renewable resources as long as we have seeds to plant and soil and good weather for growing the seeds."
"Coal is a non-renewable resource because once all the coal is found and used up, it cannot be created again."

Air-breathing cold-blooded egg-laying vertebrates.
"Examples of reptiles are crocodiles, tortoises, snakes, and lizards."

series circuit
An electrical circuit with only one path where a current can flow.
"Christmas tree lights in the 1950's were on series circuits; all the lights went out when only one bulb blew out."

simple machines
A simple unpowered device where resistance at one point is overcome by applying force at another point
"Examples of a simple machine are a lever, pulley, and inclined plane -- such as found in a shovel or crowbar, or a cord on Venetian blinds, or a wedge doorstop."

solar energy
Energy that is created by the heat of the sun.
"Solar energy generates energy in solar panels when sunshine heats up the fluid inside the panels."

In danger of becoming extinct.
"Some birds are threatened by the existence of wind farms, when the birds fly into the spinning blades and die."
To grow well, or to be successful.
"Cotton is a thriving crop in Arizona as long as irrigation water is available."

traits l characteristics
Defining features that make somebody or something recognizable.
"She could easily recognize the characteristics of Samuel's voice;  the traits were so much like his father's voice." 

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