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Wednesday, September 28, 2011
TIER 2 ACADEMIC VOCABULARY ELA GLOSSARY
TIER 2 ACADEMIC VOCABULARY ELA GLOSSARY ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS
accelerate-to make something go faster. The driver accelerated the car. achieve-to do or complete something with success. He wanted to become famous, and he achieved his goal.
adjacent-near or next to. The bank is adjacent to the post office.
alternative-one of two or more choices. Our two alternatives are walking or taking a taxi.
analyze-to separate into parts for close study; examine and explain. If we analyze the problem, perhaps we can solve it.
approach-to come or go near to. Be careful when you approach a strange dog.
approximate-close in amount or time, but not exact. The mechanic told us the approximate cost to repair the car. What is the approximate time that you will arrive?
arbitrary-resulting from personal opinions, wishes, or feelings instead of from a rule or reason. The jury's decision seemed unfair and arbitrary.
assert-to state with force or confidence. He asserted his innocence.
assess-to set or try to find the importance or value of; evaluate; estimate. They assessed the damage to his car.
assign-to choose someone to do a particular thing. His boss assigned him to work the night shift.
assume-to think that something is true without knowing the facts or asking about them. Everyone assumed they were rich because they had a big house, many cars, and a swimming pool.
authorize-to give authority to. My mother authorized the doctor to treat my brother's broken arm.
automatic-working or operating by itself. This house has an automatic heating system.
chapter-one of the main parts of a book. The last chapter of this novel is the most exciting.
compensate-to pay or repay. I compensated him for the dinner he gave us.
complex-not simple. A computer is a complex machine. English spelling is complex.
complicate-to make more difficult to do or understand. The bad weather complicated our vacation plans.
comply-to do what is asked or demanded; act in agreement with a rule (sometimes followed by "with"). I complied with my teacher's request that I get permission from my parents. Please comply with the campground's rule against littering.
component- a part of something. One of the components of the engine is missing. Vegetables are a component of a healthy diet.
comprehend-to understand. Do you comprehend the instructions?
conceive-to give shape to in the mind. She conceived a clever story.
concentrate-to make purer or stronger by taking away parts that are not necessary. To concentrate some substances, you remove the water they contain. If you boil this sauce for a long time, it will concentrate and get thick.
concept-a general idea or thought. The concept of marriage is different in different countries. My youngest child has difficulty learning new concepts.
conclude-to bring to an end; finish or complete. We concluded the meeting and went out for lunch.
consequence-that which follows; result. Her stomach pain was a consequence of eating too much.
consist-to be made up or formed of something. The United States consists of fifty states.
constant-going on without a pause. The dog's constant barking annoyed the neighbors.
construct-to build; put together. They constructed the garage in three days.
consult-to speak with someone or look up something to gain advice or information. Bob consulted the doctor about his pain. I consulted the dictionary to check the spelling of a word.
context-the setting of a word or phrase that affects its meaning. The meaning of the word "fly" changes depending on its context.
contrast-to compare in order to show differences. The book contrasted the lives of women a hundred years ago with the lives of women today.
contribute-to give something for a purpose. The contributed time and money to the animal shelter.
convert-to change into a different form or state. This sofa converts to a bed. He converted to his wife's religion.
create-to bring into being. The chef created a new dish.
criterion-a standard or test by which to judge or decide. Power is only one criterion of a car's quality.
crucial-very important; deciding the success or failure of something. It is crucial that you follow directions during a fire drill. The surgeon had reached a crucial moment during the operation.
data-facts, figures, or other pieces of information that can be used in different ways. Computers are used to store large amounts of data. Data about the U.S. population is collected every ten years.
define-to explain the meaning of a word or phrase. This dictionary defines hundreds of words.
definite-clear or exact. I have no definite plans for Friday night. I have a definite reason for wanting it this way.
demonstrate-to show how to do something. The physical education teacher demonstrated some new exercises.
denote-to be a mark or sign of. A flashing red light denotes danger.
derive-to obtain from a particular source (usually followed by "from"). Many medicines have ingredients derived from plants.
design-to draw plans for the form or structure of something. She designs and makes her own clothes. He designed an addition to his house.
devise-to invent or think out. She devised a plan to earn money.
devote-to give to a purpose; dedicate. They devoted their time and energy to helping others.
dimension-size as measured in length, width, or depth. The dimensions of the box are two feet long, one foot wide, and six inches deep.
distinct-different or separate. There are many distinct kinds of dogs.
distort-to twist out of shape; change the way a thing looks or acts. The ripples in the pond distorted his reflection.
element-a basic part of any whole. One element of this recipe is missing.
emphasize-to give particular attention to something. The president emphasized the importance of education.
empirical-based on or verifiable by experience or experiment, rather than on or by theory. Claims for the effectiveness of the drug are based on empirical
evidence-Scientists use the empirical method so that their results can be verified.
ensure-to make certain; cause to be a certainty. Those dark clouds ensure rain.
entity-anything that exists objectively and distinctly, whether nonliving or living; thing or being. A wife in those days was not viewed as a separate entity from her husband. As a corporation, the business is a distinct entity and must pay its own taxes.
environment-the objects and conditions that exist in a place and influence how people feel and develop. A safe environment is important for the proper development of a child. Problems with the boss create a bad work environment.
equate-to make or consider to be equal or equivalent. Classroom learning is essential, but it cannot be equated with experience on the job. Her parents equate money with success.
equivalent-the same as or equal to another in force, value, measure, or meaning. Three feet is equivalent to one yard.
establish-to start or make something that did not exist before. He established a new business last year.
evaluate-to judge or set the value of. The magazine evaluated ten new cars.
evident-easily seen; clear. Her happiness was evident to all.
expand-to make larger or wider. The supermarket expanded its parking lot.
expose-to show something that you usually cannot see. We pulled up the carpet and exposed the wood floor.
external-of the outside or outer part. He cleaned only the external surfaces of the oven.
feasible-capable of being done, carried out, or brought about; possible. The project seemed quite feasible when they started, but they soon ran into an obstacle. Finishing by March is a feasible objective in our opinion.
fluctuate-to vary or change irregularly; rise and fall. The price of gold continually fluctuates. My appetite fluctuates; some days I'm hungry all the time and other days I don't feel like eating at all.
focus-the area of greatest attention or activity. The focus of the report was changes in the economy.
formulate-to state in precise or systematic terms.
function-the purpose for which an object or a person is used. The function of a police officer is to keep the peace. The function of scissors is to cut things.
generate-to bring into being or to produce. The human body generates heat.
guarantee-a promise that something you have bought will work well. If it does not, the store must either repair it or give you a new one. There is a two year guarantee on my new computer.
hypothesis-a prediction or educated guess that can be tested and can be used to guide further study. This chapter explains scientists' new hypothesis about the birth of stars.
identify-to find out or show who someone is or what something is. She identified him as the criminal. He is good at identifying trees.
ignore-to refuse to recognize or notice. She ignored me at the dance.
illustrate-to provide pictures to go along with written material. He illustrated the children's book with pictures of dinosaurs.
impact-the coming together of objects with great force. The impact of the bus against the tree cracked the windshield.
implicit-implied rather than directly stated. She realized that his words, complimentary on the surface, contained an implicit insult. Her rejection of his proposal was implicit in her silence.
imply-to hint or suggest without saying directly. When she said that the floor was dirty, she was implying that I should mop it.
indicate-to show or point out. Can you indicate your street on the map?
individual-single, separate, or different from others. You need to water each individual plant.
inhibit-to hold back, restrain, prevent, or tend to do so. His fears inhibit him from making friends. Salt inhibits the freezing of water. Threats of violence inhibited the people from registering to vote.
initial-first. I was nervous before my initial visit to the doctor.
innovation-a new idea, product, or way to do something. Thanks to innovations in technology, many people can now make use of a computer.
intense-having a very great degree of something, such as heat, or being in a very great degree or state. The intense heat from the burning building made it impossible for the fire fighters to go in.
interpret-to understand in a particular way. I interpreted her smile to mean that she agreed. We had to interpret a poem in English class.
intuitive-of or pertaining to intuition. He had an intuitive understanding of the situation.
involve-to have as a necessary part; include. Police work involves danger. Please don't involve me in your problems.
isolate-to set apart in order to make alone. The doctors isolated the sick child. His house is isolated in the woods.
magnetic-having to do with magnets and the way they work. Certain metals are magnetic.
magnitude-size or extent. The magnitude of the universe can make us feel small.
major-very important. The economy is a major issue in the campaign for president.
manipulate-to handle or operate skillfully with the hands. He manipulated the clay to form a tiny sculpture. Do you know how to manipulate the controls?
mathematics-the study of numbers, amounts, and shapes, and the relationships among them.
method-a regular or proven way of doing something. He has his own method of working.
minimum-the smallest possible amount or number. There is an age minimum for this movie.
modify-to change in some way; alter. They modified the language of the play so that the younger children could understand it.
negative-saying or meaning "no. "He gave a negative answer to the question.
notion-an idea, opinion, or view. I have no notion of what you mean.
obtain-to get; gain. He obtained his college degree in just three years.
obvious-easy for anyone to see or understand; clear. It was obvious that he liked her a lot.
occur-to take place; happen. Where were you when the crime occurred?
passive-not being active or being part of an activity. Watching television is a passive activity.
period-a section of time with a set beginning and end. We will be on vacation for a period of three weeks.
perspective-a way of showing objects on the flat surface of a picture so that they seem the correct size and distance from one another.
pertinent-having to do with or connected to a subject; relevant. Sailing is not pertinent to a discussion about the desert.
phase-a particular stage of development or of a process. Teenagers go through many phases as they become adults.
phenomenon-a happening or fact that can be seen or known through the senses. A hurricane is an example of a weather phenomenon.
portion-a part of a whole. He read a portion of the book.
potential-able to come into being; possible. That broken stair is a potential danger.
precede-to come before in time. The movie was preceded by several ads for other movies.
precise-stated in a clear way and with details. Because of the precise directions, we were able to find the park.
presume-to take for granted; assume. I presumed you would wait for me even if I was late.
prime-first in importance. Sugar was the prime export of Hawaii for many years.
principle-a basic law or belief on which action or behavior is based. Our country's laws are based on the principles of liberty and justice for all.
proceed-to move forward after a stop. After you give your name, you may proceed to the front of the line.
publish-to prepare and print something for the public to read. I work for a company that publishes magazines.
pursue-to follow in order to reach or catch; chase. The police officer pursued the thief on foot.
random-made or done without purpose or pattern; made or done by chance. I made a random choice of five books from the library.
range-the two end points or limits between which something can vary, or the distance between these two limits. In this school, the range of ages is from five to eleven. The paint store has a wide range of paint colors to choose from.
react-to act in a particular way because of something that happened. Sue reacted calmly when she heard the bad news.
region-an area of the earth's surface that has a certain type of land and climate. This tree grows only in tropical regions.
require-to make something necessary. When someone requires you to do something, you must do it. The law requires drivers to have insurance. The school requires physical examinations for all the children.
respective-of or belonging to each one. The brothers' respective ages are sixteen and twenty three.
restrict-to keep within certain limits. His parents restricted him to his room. Can we restrict our discussion to one topic?
reverse-opposite in direction, position, or movement. The reverse side of the towel is softer.
role-the customary or expected behavior associated with a particular position in a society. She feared that she could not fulfill the role of a royal princess.
section-a part that is different or apart from the whole. I like living in this section of the city. Put the book back in the top section of the bookcase.
segment-one of the parts into which something is or can be separated. She divided the orange into segments. He wrote about one segment of our history.
select-to choose; pick. Please select the song you would like to play.
sequence-the order in which things follow one another. Classes at our school follow the same sequence every day.
series-a group of similar things that come one after another. She read a series of articles in the newspaper. He had a series of back injuries.
shift-to move or change position. The boy shifted in his chair.
signify-to serve as a sign of; mean. I've seen this symbol many times, but I can't remember what it signifies.
similar-being almost the same as something else. Lee's handwriting is similar to mine.
simultaneous-existing, happening, or done at the same time. The gymnasts all did a simultaneous flip.
sophisticated-having or showing a lot of knowledge or experience; not ignorant or simple. This author writes for a sophisticated audience.
species-a group of living things that are the same in many important ways. Members of a species can produce young together. Cats and dogs belong to different species.
specify-to name or otherwise indicate explicitly. She specified her niece as the heir to her fortune. Did he specify which brand of coffee he wanted?
stable-firm or steady; not likely to move. The table is not stable because one of its legs is too short.
statistic-a piece of numerical information. The almanac also gives weather statistics such as record high or record low temperatures. The census gathers statistics on the population such as the number of children per household. The percentage of people who voted in the election is an interesting statistic.
status-a person's position or level in comparison with the position of other people. His status rose when he got the new job.
structure-a thing that is made up of different parts that are connected in a particular way. A human cell is a complicated structure. That new hotel is an interesting structure.
subsequent-coming or happening after; following. His first film was a complete flop, but his subsequent films were quite successful. Four years subsequent to their arrival in New York, they moved the family to Chicago. In subsequent years, they were to think fondly of how they had first met.
suffice-to meet needs, goals, or the like adequately; be sufficient.
sum-the number or amount that comes from adding two or more numbers. The sum of ten and ten is twenty.
summary-a short and usually comprehensive statement of what has been previously stated. The paper ended with a concise summary of all of the writer's points. I didn't have time to read the whole article so I read just the summary.
technique-a particular way of doing something. He learned several techniques for baking bread.
technology-a field of knowledge having to do with the use of science and industry to help solve common problems of life. Technology is used to help solve energy problems.
tense-pulled or stretched tight. My muscles are still tense from lifting those heavy boxes.
tense-the form of verbs that shows when an action happens. In English, verbs change their form to show past or present time. In the sentence "I stopped the car," the verb "stopped" is in the past tense.
theory-a statement that explains why something happens but has not been proven. The police have a theory about who stole the jewels. The scientists discussed theories about the beginning of life on Earth.
trace-a very small amount of something. There was a trace of smoke in the air. The police detective found a trace of lipstick on the glass.
tradition-the beliefs and ways of doing things that are passed down from parents to children. Many people celebrate holidays by carrying out old family traditions.
transmit-to send or carry from one person, place, or thing to another. They transmitted the message to their leader. The television station refused to transmit the program.
ultimate-last or farthest in a progression; final. Your grade will be based on the quality of your ultimate product. To become a full professor is her ultimate goal. They sailed to the port of New York, but Minneapolis was their ultimate destination.
undergo-to have the experience of; receive; endure. She'll undergo surgery on her foot next week. Our family underwent major changes last year.
usage-way or manner of using or treating something. The teacher explained the usage of the new words and expressions.
valid-based on truth, fact, or logic. It's valid to say that cats have whiskers. His argument is valid.
vary-to change from something else, or to be different from other things. The weather varies a lot this time of year. The children vary in age from eight years old to fifteen years old.
verbal-having to do with words. That poet has wonderful verbal skill.
verify-to make sure of the truth or correctness of. We verified his story by talking to his father. The waiter verified our bill by checking it with a calculator.
vertical-straight up and down; upright. His shirt has vertical stripes.